Darussefaka Cad. No: 57/A P.K. 35 34262

Tel: 90.212.523 4556 – 532 5843 Fax: 90.212.525 5979




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The Sunni Path.................................................................1

Contents ...........................................................................2

The Sunni Path.................................................................3

Preface .............................................................................3

1 — Ma’lûmât-i Nâfi’a (Useful Information).......................6

2 — The Faith Of The Ahl As-Sunna..............................40

3 — Al-Imâm Al-A’zam Abû Hanîfa (Rahmatullâhi Ta’âlâ ’Aleyh)...49

4 — Wahhâbism And Its Refutation By The Ahl As-Sunna ...... 62

5 — Final Remarks.........................................................96

6 — Masjîd An-Nabî .......................................................98

What Is A True Muslim Like?..........................................98

Glossary .......................................................................105

Publisher’s Note:

Permission is granted to those who wish to print this book in

its original form or to translate it into another language. We pray

that Allâhu ta’âlâ will bless them for this beneficent deed of

theirs, and we thank them very much. However, permission is

granted with the proviso that the paper used in printing will be of

a good quality and that the design of the text and setting will be

properly and neatly done without mistakes.


Ihlas Gazetecilik A.Ş. Istanbul Tel: 90.212.454 3000

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Bismi’llâhi ’r-rahmâni ’r-rahîm



Let us begin the book in the name of Allah!

The best protection is the name of Allah!

His blessings are beyond all means of measure;

All Merey He is, forgiving His pleasure!

Allâhu ta’âlâ, having mercy upon all people on the earth,

creates useful things and sends them to us. In the Hereafter, He

will forgive those guilty Believers who are to go to Hell, and will

bring them to Paradise. He alone creates every living creature,

keeps every being in existence every moment, and protects all

against fear and horror. Trusting ourselves to the honourable

name of Allâhu ta’âlâ we begin to write this book.

Hamd[1] be to Allâhu ta’âlâ. Peace and blessings be on

Rasûlullah, the Prophet Muhammad (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa

sallam). Benedictions be over his pure Ahl al-Bait and over all

his just and devoted companions (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhum


Islamic scholars, who are called Ahl as-Sunna, wrote

thousands of valuable books that state the beliefs, commands

and prohibitions of Islam correctly. Many of them have been

translated into foreign languages and circulated throughout the

world. On the other hand, malevolent, short-sighted people

have attacked Islam’s beneficial, bountiful and luminous way;

tried to blemish the scholars of the Ahl as-Sunna (radiy-Allâhu

ta’âlâ ’anhum ajma’în), and attempted to change Islam and

thereby deceive Muslims. This struggle between Muslims and

the irreligious has taken place in every century, and it will

continue till the end of the world. Allâhu ta’âlâ willed in eternity

that this be so.

Muslims consist of scholars (hawâs) and laymen (awâm).

The Turkish book Dürr-i Yektâ writes, “Laymen are those who

do not know the rules of Arabic grammar and literature. They

are unable to grasp the books of fatwâ. It is fard for them to look

[1] Praise and gratitude.

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for and learn the knowledge relating to Islamic belief and

’ibâdât. On the other hand, it is fard for scholars to teach, by

preaching and writing, first the belief and then the five tenets of

ibâdât, which make up the foundation of Islam. It is stated in the

books Zahîra and Tâtârhâniyya that teaching the

fundamentals of îmân and the belief of Ahl as-sunna is of

primary importance.” That is why the great scholar ’Abd-ulhakîm-

i-Arwâsî ‘rahmatullahi ’aleyh’, an expert in the religious

and experimental sciences, said towards the termination of his

blessed life, “For thirty years, I have endeavoured to explain the

Islamic belief, the i’tiqâd (credo, tenets) of Ahl as-sunna, and

Islam’s beautiful ethical teachings in Istanbul’s mosques.”

Therefore, in all our books, we too, have tried to explain the

i’tiqâd of the Ahl as-Sunna and the good morals of Islam,

stressing the importance of being kind to everybody and

obeying and helping the State. We do not approve of the

writings of some lâ-madhhabî people, who are unaware of the

religion and who provoke people against the State and set

brothers at loggerheads. Stating, “The religion is under the

shadow of swords,” Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)

explained that Muslims could live in comfort under the

protection of the State and its laws. As the State becomes

stronger, the people enjoy more happiness and peace. Muslims

living happily and carrying out their religious duties with freedom

in non-Muslim countries, such as those in Europe and America,

should not revolt against the State and the laws which give

them freedom; they should not be tools for instigation (fitna) and

anarchy. This has been a commandment of scholars of Ahl as-


It has been observed with gratitude that, men of religious

authority in almost all Muslim countries strive to promulgate and

defend this right way of Ahl as-Sunna. However, some ignorant

people, who either have not read or have not understood the

books written by scholars of Ahl as-sunna, make some ignorant

oral and written statements, though without having any effect

except betraying their own ignorance and wretchedness against

Muslims’ firm îmân and the brotherly love they have for one


Harmful separatist movements among Muslims attack books

of ’ilm-i-hâl and try to vilify the ’ulamâ’ of Ahl as-Sunna and

great men of tasawwuf (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în).

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’Ulamâ’ of Ahl as-Sunna wrote necessary answers against them

and protected the true meanings which Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam) derived from Qur’ân al-kerîm against their

attempts to change it. We entreat Allâhu ta’âlâ that, by studying

this book carefully with their common sense and pure

conscience, our valuable readers will judge it fairly and stick

together in the right and true way of the Ahl as-Sunna and avoid

lying, slanderous and heretical people. By doing this, they will

escape eternal damnation.

Explanations added afterwards to some parts of our book

are written in brackets [...]. All these explanations also have

been borrowed from authentic books.


A Warning: Missionaries are striving to advertise

Christianity, Jews are working to spread out the concocted

words of Jewish rabbis, Hakîkat Kitâbevi (Bookstore), in

Istanbul, is struggling to publicize Islam, and freemasons are

trying to annihilate religions. A person with wisdom, knowledge

and conscience will understand and admit the right one among

these and will help to spread out that for salvation of all

humanity. There is no better way and more valuable thing to

serve humanity than doing so.

Mîlâdî Hijrî Shamsî Hijrî Qamarî

2001 1380 1422

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This booklet was written by Ahmed Cevdet Paşa

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), who rendered a great service to

Islam by putting the rules of Qur’ân al-kerîm into a code of law

in his valuable book Majalla. In addition, he wrote The

Ottoman History in twelve volumes, the most dependable book

in its field, and the famous Qisâs-i Anbiyâ’ (The History of

Prophets). He was born in Lofja in 1238 (1823 A.D.); he passed

away in 1312 (1894 A.D.) and was buried in the graveyard of

the Fâtih Mosque in Istanbul.

This ’alâm, that is, everything, was nonexistent. Allâhu ta’âlâ

created existence out of nothing. He wished to enrich this world

with human beings until the end of the world. Creating Âdam

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) out of soil, He ornamented the world with his

children. To show people the things necessary for them in this

world and the next, He honoured some of them by making them

prophets (’alaihimu ’s-salâm). He distinguished them from other

people by giving them high ranks. He conveyed His commands

to prophets through an angel named Jabrâ’îl (Jibrîl, Gabriel).

And they conveyed these commands to their ummas exactly as

Jabrâ’îl (’alaihi ’s-salâm) brought them to them. The first prophet

was Âdam (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and the last one was our master

Muhammed Mustafâ (’alaihi ’s-salâtu wa ’s-salâm). Many

prophets came between these two. Only Allâhu ta’âlâ knows

their number. The following are the ones whose names are


Âdam, Shîs (or Shît), Idrîs, Nuh (Noah), Hûd, Sâlih,

Ibrâhîm, Ismâ’îl, Is’hâq (Isaac), Ya’qûb (Jacob), Yûsuf

(Joseph), Eyyûb, Lût, Shu’aib, Mûsâ (Moses), Hârûn (Aaron),

Dâwûd (David), Sulaimân, Yûnus (Jonah), Ilyâs (Elijah),

Alyasa’, Dhu’l-kifl, Zakariyyâ (Zechariah), Yahyâ (John), ’Îsâ

(Jesus), Muhammad Mustafâ (’alaihimu ’s-salâtu wa ’s-salâm).

Twenty-five of these Prophets, with the exception of Shîs

(’alaihis-salâm), are named in Qur’ân al-kerîm. The names of

’Uzair, Luqmân and Dhu ’l-qarnain are also mentioned in

Qur’ân al-kerîm. Some ’ulâmâ’ of the Ahl as-Sunna said that

these three, and Tubba’ and Hidir, were prophets, while some

said they were Awliyâ’.

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Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm) is Habîb-Allah (Allah’s Most

Beloved). Ibrâhîm (’alaihi ’s-salâm) is Khalîl-Allah (the Beloved

of Allah). Mûsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) is Kalîm-Allah (one with whom

Allah spoke). ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) is Rûh-Allah (one whom

Allah created without a father). Âdam (’alaihi ’s-salâm) is Safî-

Allah (one whose fault was forgiven by Allah). Nûh (’alaihi ’ssalâm)

is Najî-Allah (one whom Allah saved from danger).

These six prophets are superior to other prophets. They are

called Ulu ’l-’azm. The most superior of all is Muhammad

(’alaihi ’s-salâm).

Allâhu ta’âlâ sent one hundred suhuf (pl. of sahîfa, booklet)

and four books down to the earth. All of them were brought by

Jabrâ’îl (’alaihi ’s-salâm). Ten suhuf descended to Âdam (’alaihi

’s-salâm), fifty suhuf to Shîs (’alaihi ’s-salâm), thirty suhuf to

Idrîs (’alaihi ’s-salâm), and ten suhuf to Ibrâhîm (’alaihi ’ssalâm).

[Sahîfa, (in this context), means ‘a small book’, ‘a

booklet’. It does not mean ‘one face of a sheet of paper’, which

we know]. Of the four books, the Tawrât esh-sherîf [Torah]

was sent to Mûsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm), the Zabûr esh-sherîf [the

original Psalms] to Dâwûd (’alaihi ’s-salâm), the Injîl esh-sherîf

[latin ‘Evangelium’] to ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and Qur’ân al-kerîm

to the Last Prophet, Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm).

During the time of Nûh (’alaihi ’s-salâm) the Flood took place

and water covered the entire world. All people and animals on

the earth were drowned. But the Believers who were on board

with him were rescued. Nûh (’alaihi ’s-salâm), when boarding

the ship, had taken one pair of every kind of animal, from which

today’s animals multiplied.

Nûh (’alaihi ’s-salâm) had his three sons on board the ship:

Sâm (Shem), Yâfas (Japheth) and Hâm (Ham). People on the

earth today are their descendants. For this reason, he is called

the Second Father.

Ibrâhîm (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was Ismâil’s and Is’hâq’s (alaihima

’s-salâm) father. Is’hâq (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was Ya’qûb’s father.

Ya’qûb (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was Yûsuf’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) father.

Ya’qûb (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was called “Isrâ’îl.” For this reason, his

sons and grandsons were called “Banî Isrâ’îl” (the Children of

Isrâ’îl). Banî Isrâ’îl increased in number and many of them

became prophets. Mûsâ, Hârûn, Dâwûd, Sulaimân, Zakariyyâ,

Yahyâ and ’Îsâ (alaihimu ’s-salâm) are among them. Sulaimân

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) was the son of Dâwûd (’alaihi ’s-salâm). Yahyâ

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(’alaihi ’s-salâm) was the son of Zakariyyâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm).

Hârûn (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was Mûsâ’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) brother.

The Arabs are the descendants of Ismâ’îl (’alaihi ’s-salâm), and

Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was an Arab.

Hûd (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was sent to the ’Âd tribe, Sâlih (’alaihi

’s-salâm) to the Thamûd tribe, and Mûsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was

sent to Banî Isrâ’îl. Also Hârûn, Dâwûd, Sulaimân, Zakariyyâ

and Yahyâ (’alaihimu ’s-salâm) were sent to Banî Isrâ’îl. Yet

none of them brought a new religion; they invited Banî Isrâ’îl to

Mûsâ’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) religion. Though the Zabûr was sent

down to Dâwûd (’alaihi ’s-salâm), it did not have

commandments, rules or ’ibâdât. It was full of sermons and

advice. Therefore, it did not abrogate or invalidate the Torah but

emphasized it, and this is why the religion of Mûsâ (’alaihi ’ssalâm)

lasted up to the time of ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm). When ’Îsâ

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) came, his religion abrogated that of Mûsâ

(’alaihi ’s-salâm); that is, the Torah became invalid. So it was no

longer permissible to follow Mûsâ’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) religion.

From then on it was necessary to follow ’Îsâ’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm)

religion until Muhammad’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) dispensation.

However, the majority of Banî Isrâ’îl did not believe ’Îsâ (’alaihi

’s-salâm) and persisted in following the Torah. Thus Jews and

Nasârâ separated. Those who believed ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm)

were called Nasârâ, who are today’s Christians. Those who

disbelieved ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and remained in disbelief and

heresy were called Yahûd (Jews). Jews still claim that they

follow Mûsâ’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) religion and read the Torah and

the Zabûr; the Nasârâ claim that they follow ’Îsâ’s (’alaihi ’ssalâm)

religion and read the Injîl. However, our master,

Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâtu wa ’s-salâm), the master of both

worlds and the prophet of all human beings and genies, was

sent as the prophet for all ’âlams (worlds of beings), and his

religion, Islam, invalidated all previous religions. Since this

religion will remain valid till the end of the world, it is not

permissible in any part of the world to be in any religion other

than his religion. No prophet will succeed him. We are, thanks

to Allâhu ta’âlâ, his Umma. Our religion is Islam.

Our Prophet, Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm), was born in

Mekka on the Monday morning of Rabî’ al-awwal 12, which

coincided with April 20, 571 (mîlâdî). He passed away in

Medina in the 11th year of the Hegira (m. 632). At the age 40,

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the angel called Jabrâ’il (’alaihi ’s-salâm) revealed to him his

prophethood. He emigrated (hijra) from Mekka to Medina in

622; his arrival at the Kubâ village near Medina on Monday,

September 20, marks the beginning of the Muslims’ Hijrî

Shamsî (solar) calendar,[1] while Muharram 1 of the same year

marks the beginning of the Qamarî (lunar) calendar.

We believe in all prophets. All of them were prophets sent by

Allâhu ta’âlâ. Yet, when Qur’ân al-kerîm descended, all other

religions were abrogated. Therefore, it is not permissible to

follow any of them. Christians also believe in all past prophets,

yet since they do not believe in the fact that Muhammad (’alaihi

’s-salâm) is the prophet for all mankind, they remain in disbelief

and diverge from the truth. As for Jews, since they do not

believe ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) either, they remain twice as far

from Islam.

Since Jews and Christians believe that their present

interpolated books are the same today as they were when they

were sent down from heaven, they are called ahl al-kitâb

(disbelievers with heavenly books). It is permissible [but

makrûh] to eat the animals they slaughter [if they mention the

name of Allâhu ta’âlâ as they slaughter them] and to marry their

daughters with nikâh.[2] Polytheists (mushriks) and apostates

(murtads) who do not believe in any prophet or book are called

“disbelievers without a heavenly book.” Mulhids, too, are said

to be in the same group. It is not permissible to marry their

daughters or to eat the animals they slaughter.

’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) chose twelve of his companions to

disseminate his religion after him; each of them was called a

hawârî [apostle, le Apôrte, Apostel]. They were Sham’ûn

[Simon], Peter, [Petros], Johanna [Johannes], the elder Ya’qûb,

Andreas [Andrew, Peter’s brother], Philippus, Thomas,

Bartholomew [Bartholomaus], Matiyyâ [Matthew], the younger

Ya’qûb, Barnabas, Yahûdâ [Judas] and Thaddaeus [Jakobi].

Yahûdâ became an apostate and Matyas [Matthias] took his

[1] The Persian Shamsî year begins six months before this, that is, on the

twentieth of March, which is the day of the Magian festival.

[2] It is not permissible for Muslim girls to marry them. If a girl intends to

marry a disbeliever, she will have slighted Allâhu ta’âlâ’s religion.

Those who slight Islam become proselytes. Therefore, such a marriage

will be one between two disbelievers.

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place. Petros was the chief of the apostles. These twelve

believers, after ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) had ascended to heaven at

the age of thirty-three, propagated his religion. Yet the true

teachings of the religion sent by Allâhu ta’âlâ could hold on only

for eighty years. Later, Paul’s fibbed doctrines spread out

everywhere. Paul was a Jew and did not believe in ’Îsâ (’alaihi

’s-salâm). Yet, pretending to be a believer of ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’ssalâm)

and introducing himself as a religious scholar, he said

that ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was the son of Allah. He fibbed some

other things and said that wine and pork were halâl. He turned

Nasârâ’s qibla from the Ka’ba to the East where the sun rises.

He said that Allâhu ta’âlâ’s Person (Dhât) was one and His

Attributes were three. These attributes were called uqnûm

(hypostases). The words of this Jewish hypocrite were inserted

into the earliest four books of the Bible (the Gospels), especially

into Luke’s book, and the Nasârâ parted into groups. Seventytwo

conflicting sects and books appeared. In the course of time,

most of these sects were forgotten and now they have only

three major sects left.

[’Abdullah ibn ’Abdullah at-Tarjumân, who had been a priest

on Majorca, one of the Spanish Balearic Islands, and who

changed his name after embracing Islam in Tunisia, writes:

“The four Gospels were written by Matthew, Luke, Mark and

John [Johanna]. They were the first books to defile the Injîl.

Matthew, a Palestinian, had seen ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) only in

the year of his ascent to heaven. Eight years later he wrote the

first gospel in which he narrated the extraordinary events

witnessed in Palestine when ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was born and

how his mother Hadrat Mariam took him to Egypt when the

Jewish King Herod wanted to kill her child. Hadrat Mariam

passed away six years after her son had ascended to heaven

and was buried in Jerusalem. Luke, who was from Antioch

(Antakya), never saw ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm). He was converted

to the religion of ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) by the hypocrite Paul long

after ’Îsâ’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) ascent to heaven. After being

imbued with the poisonous ideas of Paul, he wrote his gospel,

changing Allâhu ta’âlâ’s book (the Injîl) altogether. Mark, too,

accepted the religion of ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) after the

Ascension and wrote in Rome what he had heard from Petros

under the name of the Injîl. John was the son of ’Îsâ’s (’alaihi ’ssalâm)

aunt. He had seen ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) several times. In

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these four Gospels there are many incongruous passages.”[1]

In the two books Diyâ’ al-qulûb and Shams al-haqîqa by

Is’hâk Efendi of Harput, who died in 1309 (1892 A.D.); in the

Arabic book As-sirât al-mustaqîm by Haydarî-zâda Ibrâhîm

Fasîh, who died in 1299; in the Persian book Mîzân almawâzîn,

by Najaf Alî Tabrîzî, which was printed in Istanbul in

1288, and in the Arabic book Ar-radd al-Jamîl by al-Imâm al-

Ghazâlî, which was printed in Beirut in 1959, it is proven that

the present copies of the Bible have been interpolated.[2]

A Gospel written by Barnabas, who wrote precisely what he

saw and heard from ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm), was found and

published in English in Pakistan in 1973. It is written in Qâmûs

al-a’lâm: “Barnabas was one of the earliest apostles. He was a

son of Mark’s uncle. He was a Cypriot. He believed in ’Îsâ

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) soon after Paul came forward, with whom he

travelled to Anatolia and Greece. He was martyred in Cyprus in

the year 63. He wrote a Gospel and some other booklets. He is

memorialized on the eleventh of June by Christians.”

Christian religious officials are called clergymen. The highest

ranking Orthodox clergyman is the Patriarch. Clergymen of an

intermediate grade are called pastors. Those who read the

Bible are called qissîs (gospellers). Above the qissîs are uskufs

(presbyters), who act as muftîs. Uskufs of higher grades are

bishops, above whom are archbishops or metropolitans, who

act as qâdîs (judges). Those who conduct the ritual prayers in

church are called jâselîk (cleric), below whom are the curés or

the shammâs (deacons), and those who serve in church are

called eremites (hermits) or shamâmisa (coenobites), who also

act as muezzins. Those who have devoted themselves to

worship are called monks. Head of Catholics is the Pope (father

of fathers) in Rome. His advisory prelates are called cardinals.

All these men of religious authority of the past forgot the

Oneness of Allâhu ta’âlâ. They invented the Trinity. After some

time, in the era of the Roman Emperor Claudius II (215-271),

[1] Tuhfat al-arîb fi ’r-raddi ’alâ ahli ’s-salîb, by ’Abdullah ibn ’Abdullah at-

Tarjumân. He wrote this Arabic work in 823 (1420 A.D.), which was

printed in London in 1290 (1872 A.D.) and in Istanbul in 1401 (1981

A.D.), and it was later translated into Turkish.

[2] A photostatic reproduction of the last three books was produced by

Hakîkat Kitâbevi in 1986.

- 12 -

Yûnus Shammâs, the Patriarch of Antioch, declared the

Oneness of Allâhu ta’âlâ. He brought many people round to the

right course. Yet later priests succeeding him relapsed to

worshipping three gods. Constantine the Great (274-337)

introduced idolatry into the religion of ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm). In

325, he convened 318 priests in a spiritual council in Nicea

(Iznik) and made up a new Christian religion. In this council, a

presbyter named Arius said that Allâhu ta’âlâ is one and ’Îsâ

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) is His creature. Yet, Alexandrius, chief of the

council and the then Patriarch of Alexandria, dismissed him

from the church. Constantine the Great declared that Arius was

a disbeliever and established the principles of the Malakâiyya

(Melchite) sect; this fact is written in the book Al-milal wa ’nnihal

and in a history book by Jirjis Ibn al-’Amîd, a Byzantine

Greek historian who lived through 601-671 A.H. (1205-1273,

Damascus). In 381, a second council was held in

Constantinople (Istanbul), and Makdonius was accused of

blasphemy because he had said that ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) is not

the Rûh al-quds [the Holy Ghost] but he is a creature. In 395,

the Roman Empire split into two. In 421, a third council was

held in Constantinople to scrutinize a book by Nestorius, the

Patriarch of Constantinople, who said, “Îsâ was a man. He

cannot be worshipped. There exist only the two uqnûms. Allah

is one. Of His attributes Existence, Life and Knowledge, the

attribute ‘Life’ is the Rûh al-quds; the attribute ‘Knowledge’

penetrated into ’Îsâ and he became a god. Mariam was not the

mother of a god. She was the mother of a man. ’Îsâ was the son

of Allah.” These ideas of his were accepted. The sect of

Nestorius spread in oriental countries. Those who were in this

sect were called Nestûrîs (Nestorians). In 431, a fourth council

was held in Ephesus, where Dioscorus’s ideas were accepted

and Nestorius (d. 439, Egypt) was accused of blasphemy.

Twenty years later, 734 priests assembled at a fifth council in

Kadıköy in 451, and the writings of Dioscorus, the Patriarch of

Alexandria, were repudiated. Dioscorus’s ideas, which were

based on ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) being a god, formed the

Monophysite, which was also called the Ya’qûbiyya sect,

derived from the real name of Dioscorus, Ya’qûb (Jacob).

Mercianus, the Byzantine emperor of the time, announced the

decision of repudiation everywhere. Dioscorus fled and

preached his beliefs in Jerusalem and Egypt. His followers

- 13 -

worship ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm). Today’s Suryânîs (Syriac

speaking Christians) and Maronites in Iraq, Syria and Lebanon

belong to the Ya’qûbiyya sect.

The sect accepted in the Kadıköy council and ratified by

King Mercianus is called Malakâiya (Melchite). It is similar to the

sect accepted in the first ecumenical council held in Nicea.

Their chief is the Patriarch of Antioch. They term the attributes

Knowledge and Life as “Kalima” (Word) and “Rûh al-quds” (the

Holy Ghost), respectively, which are called ‘uqnûm’ when they

unite with man. They have three gods: ‘Father’, the uqnûm of

existence, is one of them; Jesus is the ‘Son’; Mary (Mariam) is a

goddess. They call ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) Jesus Christ.

The seventy-two Christian sects are described in detail in

the Arabic book Izhâr ul-haqq and in the Turkish book Diyâ’ ulqulûb.[


All these sects were loyal to the Pope in Rome until 446

[1054 A.D.]. All of them were called Catholic. In 1054, Michael

Cirolarius, Patriarch of Constantinople, broke away from the

Pope and began to administer the Eastern churches

independently. These churches are called Orthodox. They

follow the Ya’qûbiyya sect. In 923 (1517 A.D.), the German

priest Luther revolted against the Pope in Rome and a number

of churches followed him. They are called Protestants.]

As it is seen, most Christians are baser than Jews, and they

will be punished more severely in the Hereafter because they

both disbelieve Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and trespass

against the subject of Ulûhiyya (Divinity); they believe in the

Trinity and worship ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and his mother Hadrat

[1] Izhâr al-haqq was printed in Arabic in Istanbul in 1280 (1864 A.D.). In

this book, Rahmatullah Efendi of India (rahmat-Allâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), who

passed away in Mekka in 1306 A.H., writes in detail about the

discussions he had with Christian priests in India in 1270 and in

Istanbul later, and tells how he silenced them. Comments on these

discussions were added in the Istanbul impression of the Persian book

Saif al-abrâr. Izhâr al-haqq has two parts: the first part, which was

translated into Turkish by Nüzhet Efendi, the Chief Secretary of the

Ministry of Education, was printed with the title Îzâh al-haqq in Istanbul;

the second part was translated into Turkish by Seyyid Ömer Fehmi bin

Hasan in 1292 A.H. and was printed with the title Ibrâz al-haqq in

Bosnia in 1293 (1876 A.D.). Diyâ’ al-qulûb by Is’haq Efendi of Harput

was translated into English with the title Could Not Answer (in Istanbul

in 1990).

- 14 -

Mariam and divinize them; they also eat maita flesh.[2] As for

Jews, they reject two prophets; but they know that Allâhu ta’âlâ

is one, and they do not eat maita flesh. Nevertheless, Jews are

more hostile towards Islam. Although a few Jews became

polytheists like Christians by saying, “’Uzair (Ezra) was Allah’s

son,” they are all called ahl al-kitâb. The Orthodox, Catholics

and Protestants read different versions of the Bible and claim

that they follow ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm). However, each sect has

many conflicting principles on creed and practice. All of them

are called Nasârâ, Christians or ahl al-kitâb. Jews think of

themselves as being in Mûsâ’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) religion.[1]

When our Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâtu wa sallam) honoured the

Hereafter with his presence in the eleventh year of the Hegira,

Abû Bakr as-Siddîq (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) became the Khalîfa,

who, 13 years after the Hegira, passed away at the age of sixtythree.

After him, ’Umar al-Fârûq (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) became the

Khalîfa. He was martyred at the age of sixty-three, in 23 of the

Hegira. After him, ’Uthmân Dhu’n-Nûrain (radiy-Allâhu ’anh)

became the Khalîfa. He was martyred at the age of eighty-two,

in the year 35 after the Hegira. Then, ’Alî (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ

’anh) became the Khalîfa. He was martyred in 40 A.H. when he

was sixty-three. These four Khalîfas are called al-Khulafâ’ arrâshidîn.

Exactly as in the ’Asr as-Sa’âdâ, the rules (ah’kâm) of

the Sharî’a were carried out and righteousness, justice and

freedom flourished everywhere during their caliphates. Rules of

the Sharî’a were carried out without any misapplications. These

four Khalîfas were the most exalted among all the as-Sahâbat

al-kirâm (’alaihimu ’r-ridwân) and their superiority to one another

was as in the order of the sequence of their caliphates.

In the time of Abû Bekr ‘radiy-allâhu anh’ Muslims went out

of the Arabian Peninsula. They suppressed the tumults that had

broken out in the peninsula, and struggled for the suppression

of proselytes. After our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)

honoured the Hereafter with his presence, rebellions broke out

[2] Islam prescribes who to kill an edible animal. When it is not killed in the

prescibed manner, its flesh becomes maita, i.e. not edible.

[1] In 1954, the population of the world was 2.444 billion. There were 322

million Muslims, 800 million Christians (128 million the Orthodox, 470

million Catholics and 202 million Protestants), 11 million Jews, and

1.311 billion polytheists and unbelievers, who did not believe in any

heavenly book or any prophet.

- 15 -

on the Arabian Peninsula. Abû Bakr (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) quelled

the rebellions and struggled to correct the apostates during his

caliphate and re-established Muslim unity as had been the case

during the ’Asr-as-Sa’âda. ’Umar (radiy-Allâhu ’anh), when he

became the Khalîfa, delivered a speech:

“O Companions of the Messenger! ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ

’anhum ajma’în’. Arabia can supply only the barley for your

horses. Yet, Allâhu ta’âlâ has promised His Beloved (the

Prophet) that He would give Muhammad’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm)

Umma lands and homes in all parts of the world. Where are the

soldiers to conquer those countries promised and to attain

booties in this world and honours of ghâzî and martyr in the

Hereafter? Where are the ghâzîs who will sacrifice their lives

and heads and leave their homes to rescue the human slaves

of Allâhu ta’âlâ from the paws of the cruel for the sake of

Islam?”. With these words, he encouraged the Sahâbat al-kirâm

(’alaihimu ’r-ridwân) to go for jihâd and ghazâ. It was this

speech of ’Umar’s (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) that prompted the rapid

enlargement of Islamic countries on three continents and the

purification of millions of people from disbelief. Upon this

speech, the Sahâbat al-kirâm (’alaihimu ’r-ridwân) took a

unanimous oath to make jihâd and to fight for Islam until death.

With armed forces organized as the Khalîfa had commanded,

Muslims left their homes and went out of Arabia and settled

everywhere. Many of them did not come back and struggled till

death where they had gone. Thus many countries were

conquered in a short time. In those days, there were two great

empires: the Byzantine and the Persian. Muslims overcame

both. Especially, the Persian Empire collapsed altogether, and

all her lands came into Muslims’ possession. Inhabitants of

these countries, being blessed with the honour of becoming

Muslims, attained peace in this world and endless bliss in the

Hereafter. During the times of ’Uthmân and ’Alî (radiy-Allâhu

’anhumâ), too, Muslims dedicated themselves to ghazâ.

Nonetheless, during the caliphate of ’Uthmân (radiy-Allâhu ’anh)

some people rose against the Khalîfa and martyred him. During

the time of ’Alî (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) the Khârijî tumults arose.

Differences among the Muslims commenced. And, since the

greatest source of conquest and victory was unanimous unity,

during their caliphates not so much land was conquered as had

been the case during the time of ’Umar (radiy-Allâhu ’anh).

- 16 -

The era of al-Khulafâ ar-râshidîn lasted thirty years. These

thirty years, like the time of the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm),

passed in prosperity. After them, many bid’as and wrong paths

appeared among Muslims and many people dissented from the

right way. Only those who believed and adapted themselves to

the Sharî’a exactly as the Sahâbat al-kirâm (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ

’anhum ajma’în) had done were saved. Their way is that of Ahl

as-Sunnat wa’l-Jamâ’a. This is the only correct way. The way

which our Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and his companions

followed was the way which is shown by the scholars of the Ahl

as-Sunna (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în). The wrong ways

were forgotten in the course of time, and most Muslim countries

today follow this correct way. Of those which were not

compatible with the Ahl as-Sunnat wa ’l-Jamâ’a, there is only

the Shî’ite group left. The Shî’ites claim, “The Caliphate was

’Alî’s (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) right and Abu Bakr and ’Umar (radiy-

Allâhu ta’âlâ anhumâ) deprived him of his right by force,” and

they slander most of the Sahâbat al-kirâm. [Today, those who

are called Muslims and are known as the al-Ummat al-

Muhammadiyya are almost entirely composed of the Ahl as-

Sunna, the Shî’ites and the Wahhâbîs].[1]

The Ahl as-Sunna, with respect to fiqh (actions, ’ibâdât),

consists of four Madhhabs. The first one, the Hanafî Madhhab,

was founded by al-Imâm al-a’zam Abu Hanîfa Nu’mân ibn

Thâbit (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh). ‘Hanîf’ means ‘a person who

believes correctly, who clings to Islam.’ ‘Abu Hanîfa’ means ‘the

father of true Muslims.’ Al-Imâm al-a’zam did not have a

daughter named ‘Hanîfa.’ The second of the four Madhhabs of

the Ahl as-Sunna is the Mâlikî Madhhab of Imâm Mâlik ibn

Anas (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh). The third one is the Shâfi’î

Madhhab of Imâm Muhammed ibn Idrîs ash-Shâfi’î

(rahmatullâhi ’aleyh). Hadrat Shâfî’, a Sahâbî, was the

grandfather of the Imâm’s grandfather. That was why he and his

Madhhab were called Shâfi’î. The fourth one is the Hanbalî

Madhhab of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh). [As is

written in the preface of Radd al-mukhtâr by Ibn ’Âbidîn, these

four imâms were born in the hijrî years 80, 90, 150 (767 mîlâdî)

and 164 and passed away in 150, 179, 204 and 241,

[1] Those zindîqs who are called Ahmadiyya (Qâdiyânîs) and Bahâ’îs have

no connection with Islam. Both groups are disbelievers.

- 17 -


With respect to i’tiqâd (beliefs), these four Madhhabs are not

different from one another. All of them belong to the Ahl as-

Sunna and their beliefs and the basis of their religion are the

same. These four Imâms of the Muslims were great mujtahids

recognized and believed by everybody. Yet they disagreed with

one another in some small affairs with respect to actions (the


Because Allâhu ta’âlâ and His Prophet (sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ

’alaihi wa-salam) pitied Muslims, it was not declared clearly in

Qur’ân al-kerîm and Hadîth ash-sherîf how some actions should

be done.[1] These actions had to be done by comparing them to

those declared clearly. Among religious scholars, those who are

capable of understanding how such actions are to be done after

comparing them were called mujtahid. It was wâjib, that is, it

was commanded in Qur’ân al-kerîm and Hadîth ash-sherîf for a

mujtahid to strive with his utmost energy to find out how an

action is to be done and, for him and for those who follow him,

to perform it in accordance with his deduction or choice

(ijtihâd), which, he thought, was most probably the right

solution. A mujtahid’s mistake in exploring the way of doing an

action will not be regarded as a sin, and he will be rewarded in

the Hereafter for his efforts, for man is commanded to work as

much as he can. If he erred, he will be given one reward for his

efforts. If he discovered what was correct, he will be rewarded

ten times as much. All the Sahâbat al-kirâm (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ

’anhum ajma’în) were great scholars, that is, mujtahids. Among

those who lived immediately after them, there were many great

scholars capable of ijtihâd, and each of them was followed by

very many people. With the passage of time, most of them were

forgotten, and among the Ahl as-Sunna, only the four

Madhhabs survived. Afterwards, lest someone might come forth

and pretend to be a mujtahid and make up a heretical group,

the Ahl as-Sunna did not follow any Madhhab other than these

four. Millions of people among the Ahl as-Sunna followed one of

these four Madhhabs. Since the beliefs of these four Madhhabs

[1] If they had been declared clearly, it would have been fard or sunna to do

them exactly as they were declared. Those who would not do the fard

would be sinful and those who would slight them would become non-

Muslims; life would be very difficult for Muslims.

- 18 -

are the same, they do not consider one another wrong, nor do

they regard one another as holders of bid’at or heretics. After

saying that the right way is the way of these four Madhhabs, a

Muslim thinks that his own Madhhab is more likely to be correct.

Since Islam does not reveal clearly how the actions that are to

be determined through ijtihâd should be done, it is possible for

one’s own Madhhab to be wrong and the remaining three

Madhhabs to be right, and it is better for everyone to say, “The

Madhhab I follow is right, but it may be wrong as well; the other

three Madhhabs are wrong, but they may be right as well.”

Thus, if there is no kharâj (compelling necessity), it is not

permissible to mix the four Madhhabs with one another by doing

one thing according to one Madhhab and another thing

according to another. A person has to adapt himself in every

respect to the Madhhab he follows by learning its teachings

when there is no haraj.[1]

Most scholars said that the Hanafî Madhhab was closer to

being right. Therefore, this Madhhab settled in most Muslim

countries. Almost all Muslims in Turkistan, India and Anatolia

are Hanafîs. Western Africa is wholely Mâlikî. There are Mâlikîs

in some coastal regions of India. Among the Kurds and in

Egypt, Arabia and Daghistan, Shafi’îs are numerous. Hanbalîs

are few; at one time there were many in Damascus and


The Al-adillat ash-Shar’iyya (documents, sources of Islam)

consists of four parts: Qur’ân al-kerîm, al-Hadîth ash-sherîf,

ijmâ’ al-Umma and qiyâs al-fuqahâ’.

When mujtahids could not see in Qur’ân al-kerîm clearly how

an action is to be done, they would resort to Hadîth ash-sherîf.

If they could not find it clearly in Hadîth ash-sherîf, either, they

would declare that the action should be done in accordance

with the ijmâ’ on that action, if there had been any.[2]

[1] Yet, in case of haraj (utter difficulty, impossibility of doing an action in

accordance with his own Madhhab), it is permissible for him to follow

another Madhhab in this matter. And this brings about some conditions.

He has to observe the conditions of the latter Madhhab concerning the

affair when making use of this option. It is written in Ibni Âbidîn, in the

chapter headlined Nikâh-i-rij’î, that the scholars of Hanafî Madhhab

have issued a fatwâ permitting to imitate Mâlikî Madhhab in such


[2] Ijmâ’ means ‘unanimity, consensus; all of the Sahâbat al-kirâm’s

- 19 -

If the way of doing an action could not be found through the

ijmâ’, either, then it would be necessary to follow the qiyâs of

mujtahids. Imâm Mâlik (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh) said that, besides

these four documents, the unanimity of the inhabitants of al-

Madînat al-munawwara of that time was a document. He said,

“Their tradition [unanimity] was handed down from their fathers,

from their grandfathers, and originally from Rasûlullah (sall-

Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam).” He said that this document was more

dependable than qiyâs. Yet, the imâms of the other there

Madhhabs did not consider the inhabitants of Medina a source

for documentation.

There were two methods for ijtihâd. One was the method

of the ’ulamâ’ of Iraq, called the way of ra’y (choice) or the way

of qiyâs (comparison): if it was not declared clearly in Qur’ân alkerîm

or Hadîth ash-sherîf how to do an action, another action

that was clearly expressed in Qur’ân al-kerîm or Hadîth ashsherîf

and which was similar to the action in question would be

searched for. When it was found, the action in question would

be compared to it and done in a similar way. After the Sahâbat

al-kirâm, the leader of the mujtahids of this way was Imâm ala’zam

Abu Hanîfa (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh).

The second way was the way of the ’ulamâ’ of Hidjâz, called

the way of riwâya (tradition). They considered the traditions of

the inhabitants of al-Madînat al-munawwara superior to qiyâs.

The greatest of the mujtahids of this way was Imâm Mâlik

(rahmatullâhi ’aleyh), who lived in al-Madînat al-munawwara. Al-

Imâm ash-Shâfi’î and Imâm Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahmatullâhi

ta’âlâ ’alaihimâ) attended his sohbats. Al-Imâm ash-Shâfi’î, after

learning the way of Imâm Mâlik, went to Baghdad and learned

the way of al-Imâm al-a’zam (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) from his

disciples and united these two methods. He established a new

approach for ijtihâd. Becasue he was a very eloquent and

literary man, he understood the context of âyats and hadîths

and decided on each action in accordance with an alternative

he found more emphatic. When he could not find an alternative

strong enough, he himself employed ijtihâd according to the

commenting on or doing an action in the same manner.’ The ijmâ’ of

the Tâbi’ûn, who succeeded the Sahâbat al-kirâm, also is a document.

What the people who succeeded them did or said is not ijmâ’,

especially if they are today’s people or religion reformers or religiously

ignorant people.

- 20 -

way of qiyâs. Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh),

too, went to Baghdad after learning the way of Imâm Mâlik

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh). There, he acquired a method of

qiyâs from the disciples of al-Imâm al-a’zam (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh). Yet, because he had memorized a great many hadîths,

he employed ijtihâd first by examining the way whereby hadîths

corroborated one another. Thus, he disagreed with the other

three Madhhabs on many points concerning the rules of the


The case of these four Madhhabs is similar to that of the

inhabitants of a town, the notables of which, when they

encounter a new problem they cannot find in the law, assemble

together and solve it by comparing it to a conformable

paragraph of the law. Sometimes they cannot come to a mutual

agreement. Some of them say that the purpose of the State is

maintenance of towns for the comfort of the people. By

reasoning and observing, they solve a problem by using the

analogy between that case and a similar case which is defined

directly in an article of the law. This procedure is like the Hanafî

Madhhab. Others observe the behaviour of the officials coming

from the capital and imitate them in this respect. They say that

their behavior indicates the intention of the State. This method

is like the Mâlikî Madhhab. Some others find out the way of

doing an affair by studying the expressions and context of the

law. They are similar to the Shâfi’î Madhhab. And some decide

the way of doing an affair correctly by gathering the other

articles of the law and comparing them with one another. They

are like the Hanbalî Madhhab. Thus, each of the notables of the

town finds a solution and says that his solution is correct and

compatible with the law. But what the law approves of is only

one of the four, and the other three are wrong. Yet their

disagreement with the law is not out of their intention to oppose

the law; they strive to carry out the orders of the State.

Therefore, none of them is to be regarded guilty. They are likely

to be appreciated for striving hard. But those who find out what

is right will be appreciated more, and they will be rewarded. The

case of the four Madhhabs is of this sort. The way Allâhu ta’âlâ

likes is certainly only one of them. In an affair on which the four

Madhhabs disagree with one another, one of them must be

right and the other three wrong. But, since each imâm almadhhab

endeavoured to find out the right way, those who

- 21 -

were wrong will be forgiven. They will even be rewarded,

because our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, “There

is no punishment for my Umma due to mistakes or

forgetfulness.” These differences among them only concern

some insignificant affairs. Since there was complete agreement

among them concerning beliefs and on most of the ’ibâdât, that

is, the rules that are openly stated in Qur’ân al-kerîm and

Hadîth ash-sherîf, they did not criticize one another.

[Question: “Wahhâbîs and those who read their books say.

‘The Madhhabs appeared in the second century of the Hegira.

To which Madhhab did the Sahâba and the Tâbi’ûn belong?’ ”

Answer: An ‘imâm al-madhhab’ was a great scholar who

collected religious knowledge that he acquired from the

Sahâba-t-al-kirâm and which was clearly stated in Qur’ân alkerîm

and Hadîth ash-sherîf, and committed it to books. As for

the teachings that were not declared clearly, he would examine

them by comparing them to the ones declared clearly. “There

were also many other imâms each having his own Madhhab

during the time of the well-known four imâms. But those who

followed them decreased in number over the centuries, and, as

a result, none are left today.”[1] Each Sahabî was a mujtahîd, a

profound ’âlim, and an imâm al-madhhab. Each had his own

Madhhab and was more exalted and learned than the four

a’immat al-madhâhib. Their Madhhabs could have been more

correct and superior. Yet, because they did not write books,

their Madhhabs were forgotten. It soon became no longer

possible to follow any Madhhab other than the four. Saying, “To

which Madhhab did the Sahâba belong?” is like saying, “To

which squadron does the colonel belong?” or, “To which class

of the school does the physics master belong?”]

It is written in many books that four hundred years after the

Hegira there were no longer any scholars capable of performing

mutlaq (absolute) ijtihâd. The hadîth ash-sherîf on the 318th

page of Al-hadîqa states that false, heretical men of religious

post will increase in number. For this reason, every Sunnî

Muslim today has to follow (taqlîd) one of the known four

Madhhabs. That is, he has to read and adopt the ’ilm al-hâl

books of one of these four Madhhabs and have îmân and do all

his actions in accordance with these books. Thus, he will

[1] Al-hadîqa, p. 318

- 22 -

become a member of one of these Madhhabs. A person who

does not follow one of them cannot be a Sunnî but a lâmadhhabî

person, who either belongs to one of the seventytwo

heretical groups or has become a non-Muslim.[2]

The author of the book Mîzân-ul kubrâ (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh) writes in its preface: “All the forgotten Madhhabs and the

present four are sahîh and valid. None of them is superior to

any other, because they all depend on the same sources of

Islam. Each Madhhab has those things which are easy to do

(rukhsa) as well as difficult ones (’azîma). If a person, though

he can do the ’azîma, tries to do the rukhsa instead, he will

have made a game of Islam. He who has an excuse [unable to

do the ’azîma] may do the rukhsa. His doing the rukhsa

deserves as much thawâb as would be the case if he had done

the ’azîma. It is wâjib for an able person to do the ’azîma

instead of the rukhsa of his own Madhhab. Furthermore, if some

action which has an easy way only in his own Madhhab has

also a difficult way in another Madhhab, it will be wâjib for him

to do the latter. One should very much avoid disliking the words

of any of the a’immat al-madhâhib or hold one’s own opinion

superior to theirs. Others’ knowledge and comprehension are

next to nothing when compared with those of mujtahids.”[1]

Since it is not permissible for a person who has no excuse to

act in accordance with the rukhsa of his own Madhhab, it is

understood that it is never permissible to search for the rukhsas

of other Madhhabs, which is called the talfîq of Madhhabs.

The author of the book Durr-ul-mukhtâr (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh) says in its preface and also it is said in Radd-ulmukhtâr,

an annotation book to Durr-ul-mukhtâr, “It is not sahîh

to look for the rukhsas of the Madhhabs and to do an ’ibâda in

accordance with them. For example, if the skin of a Shâfi’’î with

an ablution bleeds, his ablution does not break, while bleeding

breaks the ablution of a Hanafî; on the other hand, a Shâfi’î’s

ablution breaks if a nâ-mahram woman’s skin touches his skin,

though it does not break according to the Hanafî Madhhab.

[2] This fact is written in Bahr, Hindiyya, in the section on “Zabâyih” of at-

Tahtâwî and in the section on “Bâghîs” of Radd al-mukhtâr.

Furthermore, it is written on page 52 of Al-basâ’ir that the tafsîr by

Ahmad Sâwî states that the same is written in the Sûrat al-Kahf.

[1] Al-mîzân al-kubrâ, preface.

- 23 -

Therefore, if a person’s skin bleeds and touches a nâ-mahram

woman’s skin after he has made an ablution, the salât he

performs with such an ablution is not sahîh. Likewise, it is bâtil

(invalid, wrong) to follow another Madhhab while doing

something according to a Madhhab. For example, if a dog

touches a Shâfi’î who, according to his Madhhab, rubs lightly

his wet hands on a small area of the hairy part of his own head

when performing an ablution, it will not be sahîh for him to

perform salât [without washing the surface the dog has

touched] by also following the Mâlikî Madhhab. The salât of a

person whom a dog has touched will not be sahîh according to

the Shâfi’î Madhhab. However, according to the Mâlikî

Madhhab, a dog is not religiously impure (najs), but one has to

rub his wet hands on the entire hairy part of his head (when

making ablution). Similarly, divorce given under duress is sahîh

in the Hanafî Madhhab, but it is not sahîh in the other three

Madhhabs. Therefore, it is not permissible for this person to

follow the Shâfi’î Madhhab and go on being married with the

woman whom he has divorced while remaining married at the

same time to her sister by following the Hanafî Madhhab. It is

not sahîh, according to the unanimity of the ’ulamâ’ to make

talfiq in doing an act, that is, to search for the rukhsas of the

Madhhabs and to act in accordance with them. It is not

permissible to do something without following one of the four

Madhhabs.”[1] Furthermore, “It is permissible in the Shâfi’î

Madhhab to perform the early and late afternoon prayers

together and the night and evening prayers together when there

is an excuse, such as travelling and hard rain. It is not

permissible in the Hanafî Madhhab. It is harâm if a Hanafî,

when he is travelling, performs the early afternoon prayer in the

time of the late afternoon prayer without any pressing

circumstance or difficulty to do so; it is never sahîh for him to

perform the late afternoon prayer in the time of the early

afternoon prayer. But both cases are sahîh in the Shâfi’î

Madhhab. When there is a great difficulty (haraj, mashaqqa) in

doing something (e.g. an ’ibâda) according to one’s own

Madhhab, it is permissible for him to choose the easy way

(rukhsa) of doing that thing in his own Madhhab. If there is

difficulty in doing the rukhsa, too, it will be permissible to follow

[1] Durr al-mukhtâr, preface, and Radd al-muhtâr, annotation to it.

- 24 -

another Madhhab for that particular ’ibâda. But then he will

have to perform the fard and wâjib actions pertaining to that

’ibâda in the second Madhhab.”[2] A person who imitates

another Madhhab when doing an act or ’ibâda does not go out

of his Madhhab; he has not changed his Madhhab. Only, while

doing that act, he has to observe the principles of the other

Madhhab, too.

Ibn ’Abidîn (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) writes: “If a Hanafî

who has performed an ablution without formally intending to

perform an ablution performs the early afternoon prayer with

this ablution, it will be permissible; if he becomes a Shâfi’î after

the arrival of the time for the late afternoon prayer and performs

the late afternoon prayer with this ablution, it will not be sahîh.

He has to intend formally to perform an ablution and perform an

ablution again.[3]

“If a person changes his Madhhab for worldly considerations

without any religious necessity or without a necessity pertaining

to knowledge, he makes a game of Islam. He must be

punished. It is feared that he may die without îmân. Allâhu

ta’âlâ declared: ‘Ask those who know.’ For this reason, it

became wâjib to ask a mujtahid, that is, to follow a Madhhab.

Following a Madhhab is possible either by saying what one’s

Madhhab is or, without saying, by intending to be in it with one’s

heart. To follow a Madhhab means to read, learn and act

according to the teachings of the imâm al-madhhab. One

cannot join a Madhhab by saying, ‘I am Hanafî,’ or ‘I am Shâfi’î,’

without learning or knowing it. Such people should learn how to

perform ’ibâdât from religious masters and from ’ilm al-hâl


“A person who despises the Madhhabs and changes his

Madhhab in order to choose the easy ways of doing something

[that is, who unites the Madhhabs and selects and gathers their

rukhsas] will not be accepted as a witness.”[2]

Ibn ’Âbidîn states in his preface that Hârûn ar-Rashîd, the

Khalîfa, said to Imâm Mâlik, “I want to spread your books all

[2] ibid, section on times of salât.

[3] Radd al-muhtâr, v. II. p. 542. A formal intention is farz in the Shâfi’î

Madhhab, whereas it is not fard in the Hanafî.

[1] Radd ul-mukhtâr, section on ta’zîr.

[2] ibid, section on witness.

- 25 -

over Muslim countries and order everybody to follow only these

books.” Imâm Mâlik replied, “O Khalîfa! Don’t do that! Scholars’

differing into Madhhabs is Allâhu ta’âlâ’s compassion upon the

Umma. Everyone follows the Madhhab he likes. All the

Madhhabs are correct.”

A ‘Mu’min’ or ‘Muslim’ or ‘Muslimân’ is one who believes

and accepts the Islamic teachings that were communicated to

humanity through Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm) by Allâhu ta’âlâ

and which have spread over Muslim countries. These teachings

were declared in Qur’ân al-kerîm and in thousands of hadîths.

The as-Sahâbat al-kirâm heard them from the Prophet (sall-

Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). The Salaf as-sâlihîn, that is, the

’ulamâ’ of Islam, who came after the Sahâbat al-kirâm in the

second and third centuries, wrote them in their books as they

heard them directly or through those who had heard them from

the Sahâbat al-kirâm. Islamic scholars who succeeded them

interpreted the knowledge reported by the Salaf as-sâlihîn

differently and differed from one another; thus, seventy-three

groups differing in the teachings pertaining to beliefs came into

being. Only one of these groups did not follow their own

thoughts and opinions or change or add anything in their

interpretation. This group with correct credo is called the Ahl

as-Sunna or Sunnî. The remaining seventy-two groups who

dissented as a result of wrong interpretation and explanation of

unclear ayâts and hadîths are called groups of bid’a (or dalâla,

deviation, heresy) or the lâ-madhhabî; they are Muslims, too,

but they are in heresy.

Some people, instead of deriving the knowledge of belief

from the books of the Salaf as-sâlihîn ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

alaihim ajma’în’, interpret Qur’ân al-kerîm and Hadîth ash-sherîf

in accordance with only their own minds and opinions; thus their

creed deviates completely and they become disbelievers called

mulhids. The mulhid thinks of himself as a sincere Muslim and

of the Umma of Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm). The munâfiq

introduces himself as a Muslim but is in another religion. The

zindîq is an atheist and does not believe in any religion, but

pretends to be a Muslim in order to make Muslims irreligious,

atheistic. He strives to make reforms in Islam and to annihilate

Islam by changing and defiling it. He is hostile to Islam. They

are much more harmful than Jews and Christians. And so are


- 26 -

The teachings that must be believed in order to be a Muslim

are not only the six tenets of îmân. To be a Muslim, it is also

obligatory to ‘believe’ that it is necessary to do the well-known

fards and to avoid and not to do the harâms. A person who

disbelieves the fact that it is one’s primary duty to do the fards

and to avoid the harâms loses his faith and becomes a

murtadd (renegade, apostate, proselyte). A person who

believes it but does not do one or more of the fards or commits

one or more of the harâms is a Muslim, but he is a guilty, sinful

Muslim. Such a Muslim is called a fâsiq. Doing the fards and

abstaining from the harâms are called “performing ’ibâdâ.” A

Muslim who tries to do the ’ibâdât and who repents immediately

when he has a fault is called sâlih.

Today, it is not excusable for a person who lives in the free

world not to know the six tenets of îmân and the well-known

fards and harâms. It is a grave sin not to learn them. It is

necessary to learn them briefly and to teach them to one’s

children. If one neglects to learn them as a result of flippancy,

one becomes a kâfir (disbeliever). Any non-Muslim who only

says, “’Ashhadu an lâ ilâha ill’Allâh wa ashhadu anna

Muhammadan ’abduhu wa Rasûluh,” and knows and

believes its meaning becomes a Muslim immediately. Yet, later

on he has to learn gradually the six tenets of îmân and the wellknown

fards and harâms for every Muslim, and Muslims who

know them should teach him. If he does not learn them he goes

out of Islam and becomes a murtadd. It is necessary to learn

them from genuine ’ilm al-hâl books written by the Ahl as-

Sunna scholars.

The i’tiqâd or îmân of the four true, correct Madhhabs is the

same. There is no difference between them in Islam. All of them

hold the beliefs of the Ahl as-Sunna. Those who do not believe

in the beliefs of the Ahl as-Sunna are called the people of bid’a,

i.e. the “lâ madhhabî.” They call themselves “members of the

fifth madhhab.” These words of theirs are not true. There is no

such thing as a “fifth madhhab.” Today there is no way other

than learning the knowledge pertaining to religion from the ’ilm

al-hâl books of one of these four Madhhabs. Everyone chooses

the Madhhab that is easy for him to follow. He reads its books

and learns it. He does everything compatibly with it, follows it,

and becomes a member of it (taqlîd). Because it is easy for a

person to learn what he hears and sees from his parents, a

- 27 -

Muslim usually belongs to the Madhhab of his parents. The

Madhhabs being not one but four is a facility for Muslims. It is

permissible to leave one Madhhab and join another, yet it will

take years to study and learn the new one, and the work done

for learning the former one will be of no use and may even

cause confusion while doing many things. It is by no means

permissible to leave one Madhhab because one dislikes it, for

Islamic scholars said that it will be disbelief (kufr) to dislike the

Salaf as-sâlihîn or to say that they were ignorant.

Recently some people like Maudoodi of Pakistan and Sayyid

Qutb and Rashîd Ridâ of Egypt have appeared. They and those

who have been deceived by reading their books say that the

four Madhhabs should be united and that Islam should be made

easy by selecting and gathering the rukhsas of the four

Madhhabs. They defend this idea with their short minds and

deficient knowledge. A glance over their books will show at

once the fact that they know nothing about tafsîr, hadîth, usûl or

fiqh, and that they reveal their ignorance through their unsound

logic and false writings. Consider the following:

1) The ’ulamâ’ of the four madhhabs say, “The mulfiq’s

deduction is incorrect,” that is, an ’ibâda performed by following

more than one Madhhab at the same time will be bâtil (invalid),

not sahîh, when this performance is not sahîh in any one of the

Madhhabs. A person who does not obey the unanimity of the

’ulamâ’ of the four Madhhabs (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim

ajma’în) will not be in any Madhhab. He will be a lâ madhhabî.

Deeds of such a lâ-madhhabî person will not be compatible with

Islam. They will be worthless. He will have made a game of


2) Confining Muslims and their ’ibâdât to a single way will

make Islam more difficult. Allâhu ta’âlâ and His Prophet (sall-

Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) would have declared everything clearly

if they wished it so and everything would be done by following

only that one way. But, pitying human creatures, Allâhu ta’âlâ

and His Messenger (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) did not

declare everything clearly. Various Madhhabs came out as a

result of the interpretations of the ’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-Sunna

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în). When a person

encounters some difficulty, he chooses an easy way in his own

Madhhab. In case of greater difficulty, he follows another

Madhhab and does that action easily. There would be no such

- 28 -

facility in case there were only one Madhhab. The lâ-madhhabî

who think that they are collecting the rukhsas to establish a

single system of easy ways are, in actual fact, inventing

difficulties for Muslims, probably without being aware of what

they are doing.

3) An attempt to do one part of an ’ibâda according to one

Madhhab and another part according to another Madhhab will

mean to mistrust the knowledge of the imâm of the former

Madhhab. As is written above, it will be kufr to say that the Salaf

as-sâlihîn (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în) were ignorant.

History has witnessed many people who wanted to make

changes in ’ibâdât and who insulted the ’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-

Sunna (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în). It is obvious that

the people who say it is necessary to select the rukhsas of the

Madhhabs and to abolish the four Madhhabs cannot even

correctly read or understand one page of the a’immat almadhâhib’s

books. For, understanding the Madhhabs and the

superiority of the a’imma requires being deeply learned. A

person who is profoundly learned will not lead people to

ruination by opening an ignorant, stupid path. Believing the

ignorant and heretical people, who have appeared in the course

of history, leads one to perdition. Following the ’ulamâ’ of the

Ahl as-Sunna, who have come in every century for fourteen

hundred years and who have been praised in hadîths, guides to

happiness. We, too, should hold fast to the right way of our

ancestors, of those pious, pure Muslims, of those martyrs who

sacrificed their lives for the Name of Allâhu ta’âlâ and for the

promulgation of Islam. And we should not be deceived by the

poisonous, harmful articles of upstart reformers!

Unfortunately, the poisonous ideas of ’Abduh, the chief of

the Cairo Masonic Lodge, have recently spread in Jâmi’ al-

Azhar in Egypt; thus, in Egypt there have appeared religion

reformers such as Rashîd Ridâ; Mustafâ al-Marâghî, rector of

the Jâmi’ al-Azhar; ’Abd al-Majîd as-Salîm, muftî of Cairo;

Mahmûd ash-Shaltut; Tantawî al-Jawharî; ’Abd ar-Râziq Pasha;

Zakî al-Mubârak; Farîd al-Wajdî; ’Abbâs ’Aqqâd; Ahmad Amîn;

Doctor Tahâ Husain Pasha; Qâsim Amîn; and Hasan al-Bannâ.

Even more unfortunately, as was done to their master ’Abduh,

these have been regarded as “modern Muslim scholars,” and

their books have been translated into many languages. They

have caused many ignorant religious men and young Muslims

- 29 -

to slip out of the right way.

The Great Muslim scholar Sayyid ’Abdulhakîm-i Arwâsî

(rahmatullâhi ’aleyh), the mujaddid of the fourteenth century of

the Hegira, said: “’Abduh, Muftî of Cairo, could not understand

the greatness of the ’ulamâ’ of Islam. He sold himself to the

enemies of Islam and at last became a freemason and one of

the ferocious disbelievers who have been demolishing Islam


Those who rolled down into disbelief or bid’a or heresy, like

’Abduh, always competed with one another in misleading also

those young religious men who succeeded them. They

pioneered the disasters which were prophesied in hadîth ashsherîf,

“Ruination of my Umma will come through the fâjir

(heretical) men of religious authority.”

After ’Abduh’s death in Egypt in 1323 (1905 A.D.), the

novices whom he trained in Egypt did not stay idle; they

published numerous harmful books which incurred

manifestation of a Divine Curse and Wrath. One of them is the

book Muhâwarât by Rashîd Ridâ. In this book, he attacked, like

his master, the four Madhhabs of the Ahl as-Sunna and,

thinking of the Madhhabs as idealistic differences and

misrepresenting the methods and conditions of ijtihad as

reactionary controversies, went so far into heresy as to say that

they had broken Islamic unity. He simply made fun of millions of

true Muslims who have been following one of the four

Madhhabs for a thousand years. He journeyed as far away from

Islam as to search for the ways of meeting contemporary needs

in changing of Islam. The only thing that is common among

religion reformers is that each of them introduces himself as a

real Muslim and an Islamic scholar of extensive knowledge who

has comprehended real Islam and modern needs. They

describe as “imitators who think vulgarly” those true, pious

Muslims who have read and understood Islamic books and who

have been following in the footsteps of the ’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-

Sunna, who were given the good news that they were

Rasûlullah’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) inheritors and who were praised

in the hadîth ash-sherîf: “Their time is the best of times.” The

reformers’ declamations and articles show clearly that they

know nothing of the rules of Islam or the teachings of fiqh; that

is, they are devoid of religious knowledge and are grossly

ignorant. In the hadîths, “The highest people are the scholars

- 30 -

who have îmân”; “The ’ulamâ’ of the religion are the

prophets’ inheritors”; “The heart’s knowledge is a secret of

Allâhu ta’âlâ’s mysteries”; “The âlim’s sleep is an ’ibâda”;

“Revere the ’ulamâ’ of my Umma! They are the stars on the

earth”; “The ’ulamâ’ will intercede on the Day of

Judgement”; “The fuqâhâ’ are inestimable. It is an ’ibâda to

be in their company,” and “An ’âlim among his disciples is

like a Prophet among his Umma,” does our Prophet (sall-

Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) praise the Ahl as-Sunna scholars of

thirteen hundred years or ’Abduh and his novices, the upstarts

who sprang up later? The question is answered by our master

Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) again: “Each century

will be worse than the century prior to it. Thus it will go on

worsening till Doomsday!” and “As Doomsday draws near,

men of religious post will be more rotten, more putrid than

putrefied donkey flesh.” These hadîths are written in

Mukhtasaru Tadhkirat al-Qurtubî. All Islamic scholars and

thousands of Awliyâ’, whom Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa

sallam) praised and lauded, unanimously say that the way

which has been given the good news of salvation from Hell is

the way of those ’ulamâ’ who are called the Ahl as-Sunnat wa

’l-Jamâ’a, and that those who are not Sunnî will go to Hell.

They also say unanimously that talfîq (unification), that is,

selecting and gathering the rukhsas of the four Madhhabs and

making up a single false Madhhab, is wrong and absurd.

Will a reasonable person follow the way of the Ahl as-Sunna,

which has been praised unanimously by the ’ulamâ’ of Islam

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în), who have come during the

period of a millennium, or will he believe the so-called “cultured,

progressive” people who are unaware of Islam and who have

sprung up within the last hundred years?

Eminent and talkative ones of the seventy-two heretical

groups, who the Hadîth ash-sherîf states will go to Hell, have

always attacked the ’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-Sunna (rahmatullâhi

ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în) and attempted to censure these blessed

Muslims; yet they have been disgraced with answers

corroborated with âyats and hadîths. Seeing that they were

unsuccessful with knowledge against the Ahl as-Sunna, they

embarked on raid and murder, killing thousands of Muslims in

every century. On the other hand, members of the four

Madhhabs of the Ahl as-Sunna have always loved one another

- 31 -

and lived brotherly.

Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) declared:

“Muslims’ parting into Madhhabs in matters of daily life is

Allâhu ta’âlâ’s compassion [for them].” But such religion

reformers as Rashîd Ridâ, who was born in 1282 (1865 A.D.)

and died suddenly in Cairo in 1354 (1935 A.D.), said that they

would establish Islamic unity by uniting the four Madhhabs. But

our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) commanded all

Muslims throughout the world to unite on one single way of

îmân, on the right way of his four Khalîfas. By working together,

the ’ulamâ’ of Islam (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în)

searched and studied the four Khalîfas’ way of îmân and

transferred it into books. They named this unique way, which

our Prophet had commanded, Ahl as-Sunnat wa ’l-Jamâ’a.

Muslims all over the world have to unite on this single way of

the Ahl as-Sunna. Those who wish for unity in Islam, if they are

sincere in their words, should join this established union. But

unfortunately, freemasons and zindîqs, who have been trying to

demolish Islam insidiously, have always deceived Muslims with

such false words as ‘unity’ and, under the mask of their slogan,

“We shall bring cooperation,” have broken the “unity of îmân”

into pieces.

Enemies of Islam have been trying to annihilate Islam since

the time of our Prophet. Today, freemasons, communists, Jews

and Christians attack with various plans. Also, those heretical

Muslims, who, as it was declared, will go to Hell, play tricks and

slander the Ahl as-Sunna, the followers of the right way, and

mislead Muslims off the true way. Thus they cooperate with the

enemies of Islam in order to demolish the Ahl as-Sunna. These

attacks also have been pioneered by the British, who have

employed all their imperial resources, treasuries, armed forces,

fleets, technology, politicians and writers in this base war of

theirs. So they have demolished the world’s two greatest

Muslim states that had been protectors of the Ahl as-Sunna,

namely the Gurgâniyya State in India and the Ottoman Islamic

Empire, which had extended over three continents. They have

annihilated Islam’s valuable books in all countries and swept

away Islamic teachings from many countries. In the Second

World War, communists were about to perish altogether, when

they received a last-ditch British succor, which helped them to

regain their strength and spread all over the world. In 1917,

- 32 -

British Prime Minister (1902-5) James Balfour established the

Zionist organization, which worked for the reestablishment of a

Jewish state in Palestine, a holy place for Muslims, and the

continuous support given to this organization by the British

Government resulted in the establishment of the State of Israel

in 1366 (1947 A.D.). It is the British Government, again, that

caused the establishment of the Wahhâbite State in 1351 (1932

A.D.) by delivering to the Sons of Sa’ûd the Arabian Peninsula

they had grasped from the Ottomans. Thus they dealt the

biggest blow to Islam.

Abdurrashîd Ibrahim Efendi says in a passage entitled “The

Hostility of the British Towards Islam” in the second volume of

the Turkish book Âlam-i Islâm printed in Istanbul in 1328 (1910

A.D.): “It was the first aim of the British to abrogate the

Caliphate of Muslims as soon as possible. It was a plot

arranged by them to encourage Crimean Turks to revolt against

the Ottoman State so that they could demolish the Caliphate.

Their secret and tricky intention was seen clearly through the

Treaty of Paris. They exposed the hostility in their hearts in the

propositions which they made in the Lozan Treaty, which was

held in 1923. Whatever the disguise, all the disasters that fell

upon the Turks were always caused by the British. To destroy

Islam has ever been the main political aim of British politicians,

for they have always feared Islam. They have been using

mercenary consciences to deceive Muslims. These treacherous

and hypocritical people are presented by the British as Islamic

scholars. In short, the greatest enemy of Islam are the British.”

Not only were Muslim countries stained with blood by the

British for hundreds of years, but also Scotch freemasons

deceived thousands of Muslims and religious men, made them

freemasons, and through such empty words as “helping

humanity, brotherhood,” caused them to dissent from Islam and

become apostates willingly. In order to annihilate Islam

throughly, they used these apostate masons as tools. Thus,

freemasons such as Mustafâ Rashîd Pasha, ’Âlî Pasha, Fuad

Pasha, Midhat Pasha and Tal’at Pasha were used to demolish

Islamic states. Freemasons such as Jamâl ad-dîn al-Afghânî,

Muhammad ’Abduh and novices trained by them were the cat’s

paws in defiling and annihilating Islamic knowledge. Of the

hundreds of destructive and subversive books written by these

masons, who occupied religious posts, the book Muhâwarât by

- 33 -

the Egyptian Rashîd Ridâ has been translated into many

languages and distributed in Islamic countries; with this method,

they have been trying to defile Muslims’ religion and faith. And it

is seen that those young religious men who have not read or

understood the books of the ’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-Sunna

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în) have been seized by this

current and pushed into perdition and have also brought

perdition to others.

The book Muhâwarât attacks the four Madhhabs of the Ahl

as-Sunna, denies ijmâ’ al-Umma, one of the four sources of

Islamic knowledge, and says that everybody should act upon

what he deduces from the Book (Qur’ân al-Kerîm) and the

Sunna (Hadîth ash-sherîf); thus, it attempts to exterminate

Islamic teachings.[1]

It is said at the end of the book Hulâsat-ut-tahqîq that a

Muslim either has become a mujtahid or has not reached the

grade of ijtihâd. A mujtahid is either mutlaq (absolute) or

muqayyad (belonging to a Madhhab). It is not permissible for a

mujtahid mutlaq to follow another mujtahid; he has to follow his

own ijtihâd. However, it is wâjib for a mujtahid muqayyad to

follow the methods of the Madhhab of a mujtahid mutlaq; and

he acts upon his own ijtihâd which he employs in accordance

with these methods.

A person who is not a mujtahid should follow whichever one

he likes of the four Madhhabs. However, when doing an act in

accordance with a certain Madhhab, he has to observe all the

conditions required by that Madhhab for it to be sahîh. If he

does not observe even one of the conditions, his act will not be

sahîh; it has been stated unanimously that such an act will be in

vain (bâtil). Though it is not a must for him to believe that his

Madhhab is superior, it will be good if he believes so. Talfîq,

[1] In order to inform Muslim brothers of the tricks and harms of this book,

we prepared our Answer to an Enemy of Islam in 1394 (1974 A.D.)

and published it in Turkish and English. Also, seeing that the book

Khulâsat at-tahqîq fî bayâni hukmi ’t-taqlîd wa ’t-talfîq by the great

Muslim scholar ’Abd al-Ghanî an-Nabulusî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh)

and the book Hujjat-Allâhi ’ala ’l-âlamîn by Yûsuf an-Nabhânî

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) and Saif al-abrâr by Muhammad ’Abd ar-

Rahmân as-Silhatî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ aleyh’, one of the ’ulamâ’ of

India, were the exact refutations to this harmful book, we reproduced

these books by offset process and published them.

- 34 -

that is, to do any ’ibâda or any act in accordance with the rules

of more than one Madhhab that disagree with one another or, to

put it more clearly, to select eclectically those rules of these

Madhhabs which disagree with one another in performing that

’ibâda, means to go out of the four Madhhabs and to make up a

fifth Madhhab. This ’ibâda will not be sahîh in any of the

Madhhabs mixed with one another; it will be in vain and will

mean to make a game of Islam. For example, if some najâsa

has been dropped into a certain amount of water of less than

hawd kabîr and more than qullatain[1] and if the colour, taste or

odor of the water has not changed and if a person performs

ablution with this water without intending formally (niyya) to

perform an ablution and if he does not wash certain parts of his

body in the prescribed succession and if he does not rub his

hands against them and if he does not wash them one right

after another and if he begins his ablution without saying the

Basmala, his ablution will not be sahîh according to any of the

four a’immat al-madhhâhib. He who says that it is sahîh will

have made up a fifth Madhhab. Even a mujtahid cannot give a

fifth opinion disagreeing with the unanimity of the four

Madhhabs. [The amount of water equaling a qullatain was

explained in detail in the seventh chapter of the fourth fascicle

of the book Endless Bliss.] Sadr ash-Sharî’a writes in his book

Tawdîh, “When two different views concerning something were

transmitted from the Sahâbat al-kirâm, the posterior ’ulamâ’

were not permitted to propose a third one according to

unanimity. There are also those (scholars) who said that the

’ulamâ’ of every century would be like the Sahâbat al-kirâm.”

Molla Khusraw (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) wrote in his work

Mir’ât al-usûl, “When two different views about doing

something were transmitted from the scholars of the first

century, it was not permissible, according to ijmâ’, to give a third

view. It is sahîh to say that the ’ulamâ’ of every century were

like the as-Sahâbat al-kirâm.” Jalâl ad-dîn al-mihâllî, the first

author of the tafsîr book al-Jalâlain, says in the commentary to

Jam’ al-Jawâmi’ by as-Suyûtî, “It is harâm to disagree with

ijmâ’. It is prohibited in Qur’ân al-kerîm. For this reason, it is

harâm to express a third opinion about something on which the

[1] Hawd kabîr, ‘great pool’ of at least 25 square meters; qullatain, 217.75


- 35 -

Salaf as-shalihîn disagreed.”

“One’s doing an ’ibâda by following rules of the two, three or

four Madhhabs disagreeing with one another is disobedience to

the ijmâ’ of these Madhhabs; such an ’ibâda will not be sahîh in

any of these Madhhabs. That is, talfîq is not permissible. Qâsim

ibn Qatlûbagha writes in At-tas’hîh, “It is unanimously stated

that it is not sahîh to do an ’ibâda by following two different

ijtihâds. For this reason, if a person, while performing an

ablution, does not rub his wet hands over all his head and if

then a dog touches him and then he performs salât, his salât

will not be sahîh. It is also written in the book Tawqîf alhukkâm

by Shihâb ab-dîn Ahmad ibn al-’Imâd (rahmatullâhi

ta’âlâ ’aleyh), a Shâfi’î scholar, that such a salât will be wrong

according to the unanimity.” According to Imâm Mâlik and al-

Imâm ash-Shâfi’î (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihimâ), the ablution

and salât of such a person will not be sahîh because, according

to the former imâm, he did not rub his wet hands on his whole

head and, according to the latter imâm, he touched a dog.

Muhammad al-Baghdâdî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), a

Hanafî scholar, writes in his booklet Taqlîd, “There are three

stipulations for imitating another Madhhab. The first one, which

is also written by Ibn Humâm in his work, Tahrîr, is that a

person cannot finish in another Madhhab an ’ibâda which he

began in accordance with his own Madhhab. For example, he

cannot perform salât in accordance with the Shâfi’î Madhhab

with an ablution which he performed in accordance with the

Hanafî Madhhab. The second stipulation, as quoted by Ibn

Humâm in his Tahrîr from Ahmad ibn Idrîs al-Qarâfî, is that the

’ibâdat he is doing should not be considered invalid by both of

the Madhhabs he is following; if he, while performing an

ablution, follows the Shâfi’î Madhhab and does not rub his hand

on those parts of his body he has to wash in an ablution, and

then if he touches a woman [he is permitted to marry] thinking

his ablution will not break by doing so according to the Mâlikî

Madhhab, the salât he performs with this ablution will not be

sahîh according to either Madhhab. The third stipulation is that

one should not seek after the rukhsas of the Madhhabs.” Imâm

an-Nawawî and many other ’ulamâ’ emphasized the importance

of this stipulation. Ibn Humâm did not state this stipulation.

Hasan ash-Sharnblâlî writes in his Al-’iqd al-farîd, “The nikâh

performed without the presence of the walî (guardian of either

- 36 -

of the intended couple who is not yet pubescent) by following

the Hanafî Madhhab or that which is performed without the

presence of eye-witnesses by following the Mâlikî Madhhab, will

be sahîh. However, the nikâh performed with the absence of

both the guardian and the eye-witnesses will not be sahîh.

Because it would be very difficult for the common people to

observe this third stipulation they have been prohibited to

imitate another Madhhab unless there is a pressing necessity

(darûra) to do so. It has been said that it will not be sahîh to

imitate another Madhhab without consulting an ’âlim.”

Ismâ’îl an-Nablusî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), in his

annotation to the commentary for Ad-durar, refers to Al-’iqd alfarîd

and says, “One does not have to remain attached to a

Madhhab. He can do an ’ibâda of his by imitating another

Madhhab as well. But then he has to observe all the conditions

required in that Madhhab for that ’ibâda. He can perform two

ibâdas not related to each other in two different ways by

following two different Madhhabs.” The necessity of observing

all of the conditions when imitating another Madhhab exposes

the fact that unification (talfîq) of the Madhhabs is not sahîh.

’Abd ar-Rahmân al-’Imâdî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), a

Hanafî scholar, says in his book Al-muqaddima, “A person can

imitate any of the three Madhhabs other than his when there is

a pressing necessity. Yet, he has to observe all the conditions

required in that Madhhab for that ’ibâda. For example, a Hanafî

who performs an ablution from a qullatain amount of water

stained with najâsa by imitating the Shâfi’î Madhhab, has to

intend formally for performing the ablution, has to rub his hand

on those parts of his body that have to be washed in ablution,

has to recite al-Fâtiha when performing the salât behind the

imâm [in congregation], and must certainly observe ta’dîl alarkân.

It has been stated unanimously that his salât will not be

sahîh if he does not do all of these.” His remark ‘pressing

necessity’ for imitating another madhhab was superfluous. By

‘necessity’ he must have meant the ‘need’ for imitating; for,

according to the majority of the ‘ulamâ’, one does not have to

follow continuously the same Madhhab. One can follow another

Madhhab if a difficulty (haraj) appears while following one’s

Madhhab. All of what has been written so far shows that

unification (talfîq) of the Madhhabs is not sahîh.

Ibn Humâm’s work Tahrîr does not contain any statements

- 37 -

indicating that talfîq is sahîh. Muhammad al-Baghdâdî and al-

Imâm al-Manâwî write that Ibn Humâm says in the book Fath

al-qadîr: “It is a sin to transfer oneself to another Madhhab by

using an ijtihâd or a document as a proof. Ta’zîr (chastisement)

should be inflicted on such a person. It is even worse to transfer

without an ijtihâd, a support. To transfer (in this context) means

to act and perform an ’ibâdât in accordance with another

Madhhab. One cannot transfer by only saying that one has

transferred. This is called a promise, not a transfer. Even if one

says so, one does not have to follow that Madhhab. The âyat

al-kerîma, ‘Ask those who know about what you do not

know,’ commands us to ask a person who is known [strongly

thought] to be an ’âlim about a (religious) rule. Scholars’

prohibition against changing one’s Madhhab is intended to

prevent an attempt at collecting the rukhsas of the Madhhabs.

To many scholars, every Muslim can follow the ijtihâd which

comes easier to him in different matters.” If an ignoramus says

that Ibn Humâm’s last statement shows that unification of the

Madhhabs is sahîh, this reasoning of his is wrong; for, the

statement shows that one action shall be done entirely in

accordance with a single Madhhab, not by following more than

one Madhhab. Those who do not belong to a Madhhab and

religion reformers who cannot understand this put forward Ibn

Humâm as a false witness for themselves. On the contrary, Ibn

Humâm writes clearly in his work Tahrîr that unification of the

Madhhabs is not permissible.

Religion reformers point to Ibn Nujaim’s (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh) writing as an example for permission for talfîq, which

says, “It is written in a fatwâ issued by Qâdî-Khân that if a piece

of land area devoted to a waqf is sold at a ghaban fâhish price,

it will be unlawful, according to Abû Yûsuf (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh), because of the ghaban fâhish price. On the other hand,

according to Abû Hanîfa, it is permissible for the deputy to sell it

at ghaban fâhish (exorbitant) price; so the two ijtihâds are

unified to make the sale sahîh.” However, the talfîq in this

example takes place within the same one Madhhab. Both

judgements are the results of the same Usûl. Not so is the case

with the talfîq of two Madhhabs. Another evidence showing that

Ibni Nujaym does not say that talfîq is permissible is his own

statement, “A person who becomes imâm for a jamâ’at whose

members are in another Madhhab (and conducts the namâz in

- 38 -

jamâ’at) has to observe the principles of that Madhhab, too,”

which exists in Bahr-ur-râiq, a commentary he prepared for the

book Kanz.[1] At this point we end our translation from the final

part of the book Khulâsa-t-ut-tahqîq.

Muhammad ’Abd ar-Rahmân as-Silhatî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh), a scholar of India, wrote in his Persian book Saif alabrâr

al-maslûl ’ala ’l-fujjâr, “While explaining the hadîth ashsherîf,

‘Make it easy! Do not make it difficult!’ in his

explanation of Mishkât, ’Allâma Hâfiz Hasan ibn Muhammad

at-Tayyibî**[2] (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) says, “A person who

gathers the easy ways of the Madhhabs becomes a zindîq.” In


1) Every Muslim has to follow one of the four Madhhabs

when he performs an ’ibâda or an act. It is not permissible to

follow any ’âlim who is not in one of the four Sunnî Madhhabs.

2) Every Muslim may follow any of the four Madhhabs which

he likes and which comes easier to him. He may carry out an

’ibâda (or an act) in accordance with one Madhhab and another

ibâda in accordance with another Madhhab.

3) As for carrying out an ’ibâda in accordance with more

than one Madhhab, it will be necessary to observe all the

requirements of one of these Madhhabs for the soundness of

that ’ibâda, and for that i’bâda to be sahîh in that Madhhab. This

is called taqwâ, and is very good. One would have followed

(taqlîd) that Madhhab and would have observed the conditions

in the other Madhhabs. Following a Madhhab is permissible

provided one will observe all its conditions. If one’s ’ibâda is not

sahîh according to any of the Madhhabs he follows, this is

called talfîq, which is never permissible.

4) One does not have to always remain attached to the

Madhhab one has chosen. One can transfer oneself to another

Madhhab any time one likes. Adapting oneself to any Madhhab

requires learning well the teachings of fiqh in that Madhhab,

which can be learned from ’ilm al-hâl books. Therefore, it will be

easier to remain attached to one madhhab all the time. It is

difficult to transfer oneself to or, for an affair, to imitate another

Madhhab. It can be done only in case of a necessity, that is,

[1] Khulâsat at-tahqîq, final part.

[2] At-Tayyîbî passed away in Damascus in 743 (1343 A.D.). First edition of

his book was published in India in 1300 (1882 A.D.).

- 39 -

when there is haraj, and on condition that one shall observe all

its conditions.

Because it is also very difficult to learn the knowledge of fiqh

in another Madhhab, scholars of fiqh prohibited the ignorant,

that is, those who do not have knowledge of fiqh, to imitate

another Madhhab. For example, it is written in Bahr al-fatâwâ,

“If a person in the Hanafî Madhhab has a wound bleeding

continuously and if it is difficult for him to make an ablution at

every prayer time, it is not permissible for him to perform salât

as prescribed in the Shâfi’î Madhhab without observing the

conditions of this Madhhab.” Ibn ’Âbidîn explains this in detail in

the chapter about “Ta’zîr.” In order to protect the ignorant’s

’ibâdât against corruption, scholars of the Ahl as-Sunna

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în) did not permit them to

imitate another Madhhab except in case of haraj.

At-Tahtâwî writes: “Some scholars of tafsîr say that the

103rd âyat of Sûrat Âl-i ’Imrân, ‘Hold fast to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s

rope,’ means, ‘Hold fast to what the fuqahâ say.’ People who

do not follow books of fiqh will fall into heresy, be deprived of

the aid of Allâhu ta’âlâ, and be burned in the fire of Hell. O

Believers! Meditate over this âyat-i kerîma and cling to the

group of the Ahl as-Sunnat wa l’-Jamâ’a, who have been

given the glad tidings that they shall be saved from Hell. Allâhu

ta’âlâ’s approval and help are only for those who are in this

group. Allâhu ta’âlâ will treat those who are not in this group

with wrath and torment in Hell. Today, belonging to the Ahl as-

Sunna requires following one of the four Madhhabs; one who

does not follow one of the four Madhhabs is a man of bid’a and

will go to Hell.”[1] A person who has gathered the easy ways of

the four Madhhabs will not have followed any of the four

Madhhabs. As it is seen, one who does not follow any of the

four Madhhabs is a lâ-madhhabî. One who makes talfîq of the

four Madhhabs, that is, by mixing the four, acts according to any

Madhhab that comes easy to him, is a lâ-madhhabî, too. Also,

one who follows one of the four Madhhabs but holds a belief

unconformable to the Ahl as-Sunna is a lâ-madhhabî. These

three are not Sunnîs, they are people of bid’a who follow heresy

(dalâla). True Muslims, however, follow one of the four

Madhhabs, that is, the ‘true way.’

[1] At-Tahtâwî’s commentary to Durr al-mukhtâr, section on ‘Zabâyih’.

- 40 -


Imâm Muhammad al-Ghazâlî (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh) writes in

his book Kimyâ-i Sa’âdat: “When someone becomes a Muslim,

it will primarily be fard for him to know and believe in the

meaning of the phrase Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh, Muhammadun

Rasûl-Allâh. This phrase is called the kalimat at-tawhîd. It is

sufficient for every Muslim to believe without any doubt what

this phrase means. It is not fard for him to prove it with evidence

or to satisfy his mind. Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)

did not command the Arabs to know or to mention the relevant

proofs or to search and clarify any possible doubts. He

commanded them to believe only and not to doubt. It is enough

for everybody also to believe superficially. Yet it is fard kifâya

that there should exist a few ’âlims in every town. It is wâjib for

these ’âlims to know the proofs, to remove the doubts and to

answer the questions. They are like shepherds for Muslims. On

the one hand, they teach them the knowledge of îmân, which is

the knowledge of belief, and, on the other hand, they answer

the slanders of the enemies of Islam.

Qur’ân al-kerîm stated the meaning of the kalimat at-tawhîd

and Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) explained what is

declared in it. All the Sahâbat al-kirâm learned these

explanations and conveyed them to those who came after

them. The exalted scholars who conveyed to us what the

Sahâbat al-kirâm had conveyed, by committing them to their

books without making any alterations in them, are called the

Ahl as-Sunna. Everybody has to learn the i’tiqâd of the Ahl as-

Sunna and to unite and love one another. The seed of

happiness is in this i’tiqâd and in this unification.

The ’ulamâ’ of the Âhl as-Sunna explain the meaning of the

kalimat at-tawhîd as follows: Men were nonexistent. They were

created later. They have one Creator. He is the One who has

created everything. The Creator is one. He does not have a

partner or a likeness. There is no second He. He has been

ever-existent; His existence did not have a beginning. He will be

ever-existent; there is no end to His existence. He will not cease

to exist. His existence is always necessary. His nonexistence is

impossible. His existence is of Himself. He does not need any

means. There is nothing that will not need Him. He is the One

who creates everything and makes them go on existing. He is

not material or a thing. He is not at a place or in any substance.

- 41 -

He does not have a shape and cannot be measured. It cannot

be asked how He is; when we say ‘He,’ none of the things

which occur to the mind or which we can imagine is He. He is

unlike these. All of them are His creatures. He is not like His

creatures. He is the creator of everything that occurs to mind,

every illusion and every delusion. He is not above, below or at

one side. He does not have a place. Every being is below the

’Arsh. And the ’Arsh is under His Power, under His

Omnipotence. He is above the ’Arsh. Yet this does not mean

that the ’Arsh carries Him. The ’arsh exists with His Favour and

in His Omnipotence. He is the same now as He was in eternity,

in eternal past. He will always be the same in the everlasting

future as He had been before creating the ’Arsh. No change

occurs in Him. He has His own attributes. His attributes called

as-Sifât ath-Thubûtiyya are eight: Hayât (Life), ’Ilm

(Omniscience), Sam’ (Hearing), Basar (Seeing), Qudra

(Omnipotence), Irâda (Will), Kalâm (Speech, Word) and

Takwîn (Creativeness). No change ever occurs in these

attributes of His. Change implies deficiency. He has no

deficiency or defect. Though He does not resemble any of His

creatures, it is possible to know Him in this world as much as

He makes Himself known and to see Him in the Hereafter. Here

He is known without realizing how He is, and there He will be

seen in an incomprehensible way.

Allâhu ta’âlâ sent prophets (’alaihim us-salâm) to His human

creatures. Through these great people, He showed His human

creatures the deeds that bring happiness and those which

cause ruination. The most exalted prophet is Muhammad

(’alaihi ’s-salâm), the Last Prophet. He was sent as the Prophet

for every person, pious or irreligious, for every place and for

every nation on the earth. He is the Prophet for all human

beings, angels and genies. In every corner of the world,

everybody has to follow him and adapt himself to this exalted


Sayyid ’Abdulhakîm-i Arwâsî[2] (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh) said:

[1] Kimyâ’ as-Sa’âda. Muhammad al-Ghazâlî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh)

was one of the greatest Islamic scholars. He wrote hundreds of books.

All his books are very valuable. He was born in 450 (1068 A.D.) in Tûs,

i.e. Meshed, Persia, and passed away there in 505 (1111 A.D.).

[2] Sayyid Abdulhakîm Arwâsî was born in Başkal’a in 1281 (1864 A.D.)

- 42 -

“Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) had three tasks. The

first one was to communicate and make known (tabligh) the

rules of Qur’ân al-kerîm, that is, the knowledge of îmân and of

ahkâm fiqhiyya, to all human beings. Ahkâm fiqhiyya is

composed of actions commanded and actions prohibited. His

second task was to transmit the spiritual rules of Qur’ân alkerîm,

the knowledge about Allâhu ta’âlâ Himself and His

Attributes into the hearts of only the highest ones of his Umma.

His first task, tabligh, should not be confused with this second

task. The lâ-madhhabî reject the second task. But, Abû Huraira

(radiy-Allâhu ’anh) said, ‘I learned two types of knowledge from

Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). I have told you one of

them. You would kill me if I explained the second one.’ These

words of Abû Huraira’s are written in the books Bukhârî,

Mishqât, Hadîqa, and in the letters of Maktûbât, numbers 267

and 268. The third task was directed towards those Muslims

who did not obey the advice and sermons concerning carrying

out the ahkâm fiqhiyya. Even force was employed to get them

to obey the ahkâm fiqhiyya.

“After Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), each of the

four Khalîfas (radiy-Allâhu ’anhum) accomplished these three

tasks perfectly. During the time of hadrat Hasan (radiy-Allâhu

’anh), fitnas and bid’as increased. Islam had spread out over

three continents. The spiritual light of Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam) receded away from the earth. The Sahâbat alkirâm

(radiy-Allâhu ’anhum) decreased in number. Later, no one

was able to do all these three tasks together by himself.

Therefore, these tasks were undertaken by three groups of

people. The task of communicating îmân and ahkâm fiqhiyya

was assigned to religious leaders called mujtahids. Amongst

these mujtahids, those who communicated îmân were called

mutakallimûn, and those who communicated fiqh were called

fuqahâ’. The second task, that is, making those willing Muslims

attain the spiritual rules of Qur’ân al-kerîm, was assigned to the

Twelve Imâms of the Ahl al-Bait (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim)

and to great men of tasawwuf. Sirrî (Sarî) as-Saqatî (d. 251/876

in Baghdad) and al-Junaid al-Baghdâdî (b. 207/821 and d.

298/911 in Baghdad) were two of them (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ


and passed away in Ankara in 1362 (1943 A.D.).

- 43 -

“The third task, having the rules of the religion implemented

by force and authority, was assigned to sultans, i.e.

governments. Sections of the first class were called Madhhabs.

Sections of the second one were called tarîqas,[1] and the third

one was called huqûq (laws). Madhhabs that tell about îmân

are called Madhhabs of i’tiqâd. Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi

wa sallam) had explained that Muslims would part into seventythree

groups in respect to îmân, and that only one of them

would be right and the others wrong. And happen it did. The

group that was given the good news of being on the right way is

called the Ahl as-Sunnat wa ’l-Jamâ’a. The remaining

seventy-two groups, which were declared to be wrong, are

called the groups of bid’a, that is, heretics. None of them are

disbelievers. All of them are Muslims. But, if a Muslim who says

he belongs to any of the seventy-two groups disbelieves any

information that has been declared clearly in Qur’ân al-kerîm, in

Hadîth ash-sherîf or that has spread among Muslims, he

becomes a disbeliever. There are many people today who,

while carrying Muslim names, have already dissented from the

Madhhab of the Ahl as-Sunna and have become heretics or

non-Muslims.” Quotations from hadrat Abdulhakîm Efendi end


Muslims have to keep on learning from the cradle to the

grave. The knowledge which Muslims have to learn is called al-

’ulûm al-Islâmiyya (Islamic sciences), which consist of two

[1] The ’ulamâ of Ahl as-Sunna collected ’ilm at-tasawwuf by learning this

second task of our Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) from the Twelve Imâms

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim). Some people do not believe in Awliyâ’,

karâmât or tasawwuf. This shows that they have no connection with the

Twelve Imâms. If they had followed the Ahl al-Bait, they would have

learned this second task of our Prophet from the twelve Imâms and

there would have been many scholars of tasawwuf and Awliyâ’ among

them. But there have not been any, and besides, they do not even

believe that such scholars could exist. It is obvious that the Twelve

Imâms are the Ahl as-Sunna’s imâms. It is the Ahl as-Sunna who love

the Ahl al-Bait and follow the Twelve Imâms. To become a scholar of

Islam, one has to be an heir of Rasûlullah (’alaihi ’s-salam) in these two

tasks. That is, one has to be an expert in these two branches of

knowledge. ’Abd al-Ghanî an-Nabulusî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), one

of such scholars, quoted, on pages 233 and 649 in his work Al-hadîqat

an-nadiyya, the hadîths describing the spiritual rules of Qur’ân al-kerîm

and pointed out that disbelieving these rules indicates ignorance and


- 44 -

parts: I) al-’ulûm an-naqliyya, II) al-’ulûm al-’aqliyya.

I) Al-’ulûm an-naqliyya (also called ‘religious sciences’):

These sciences are acquired by reading the books of the

’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-Sunna. The ’ulamâ’ of Islam derived these

sciences from four main sources. These four sources are called

al-adillat ash-Shar’iyya. They are al-Qur’ân al-kerîm, al-

Hadîth ash-sherîf, ijmâ’ al-Umma and qiyâs al-fuqahâ’.

Religious sciences consist of eight main branches:

1) ’ilm at-tafsîr (the science of interpretation of Qur’ân alkerîm).

A specialist in this branch is called a mufassir; he is a

profoundly learned scholar able to understand what Allâhu

ta’âlâ means in His Word.

2) ’ilm al-usûl al-hadîth. This branch deals with

classification of hadîths. Different kinds of hadîths are explained

in Endless Bliss, second fascicle, sixth chapter.

3) ’ilm al-hadîth. This branch studies minutely the sayings

(hadîth), behaviour (sunna), and manners (hâls) of our Prophet

(sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam).

4) ’ilm al-usûl al-kalâm. This branch studies the methods

by which ’ilm al-kalâm is derived from al-Qur’ân al-kerîm and al-

Hadîth ash-sherîf.

5) ’ilm al-kalâm. This branch covers the study of the kalimat

at-tawhîd and the kalimat ash-shahâda and the six

fundamentals of îmân, which depend on them. These are the

teachings to be believed by heart. Scholars of kalâm usually

wrote ’ilm al-usûl al-kalâm and ’ilm al-kalâm together.

Therefore, the layman takes these two branches of knowledge

as one single branch.

6) ’ilm al-usûl al-fiqh. This branch studies the derivation of

the methods of fiqh from Qur’ân al-kerîm and Hadîth ash-sherîf.

7) ’ilm al-fiqh. This branch studies af’âl al-mukallafîn, that

is, it tells how those who are sane and pubescent should act on

matters concerning the body. This is the knowledge necessary

for the body. Af’âl al-mukallafîn has eight sections: fard, wâjib,

sunna, mustahâb, mubâh, harâm, makrûh and mufsid.

However, they can be briefly classified into three groups:

actions commanded, actions prohibited and actions permitted


8) ’ilm at-tasawwuf. This branch is also called ’ilm alakhlâq

(ethics). It explains not only the things we should do and

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we should not do with the heart but also helps the belief to be

heartfelt, makes it easy for Muslims to carry out their duties as

taught in ’ilm al-fiqh and helps one attain ma’rifa.

It is fard-i ’ain for every Muslim, male or female, to learn

kalâm, fiqh and tasawwuf as much as necessary out of these

eight branches, and it is a guilt, a sin, not to learn them.[1]

II) Al-’ulûm al-’aqliyya (also called ‘experimental sciences’):

These sciences are divided into two groups: technical sciences

and literary sciences. It is fard kifâya for Muslims to learn these

sciences. As for Islamic sciences, it is fard ’ain to learn as much

as is necessary. To learn more than is necessary, that is, to

become specialized in Islamic sciences is fard kifâya. If there is

no ’âlim who knows these sciences in a town, all of its

inhabitants and government authorities will be sinful.

Religious teachings do not change in process of time.

Making a mistake or erring while commenting on ’ilm al-kalâm is

not an excuse but a crime. In matters pertaining to fiqh, the

variations and facilities shown by Islam can be utilized when

one has the excuses shown by Islam. It is never permissible to

make alterations or to make reforms in religious matters with

one’s own opinion or point of view. It causes one to go out of

Islam. Change, improvement and progress in al-’ulûm al-

’aqliyya are permissible. It is necessary to develop them by

searching, finding and even by learning them from non-

Muslims, too.

The following article is quoted from the book Al-majmû’at

az-Zuhdiyya. It was compiled by an ex-minister of education,

Seyyid Ahmed Zühdü Pasha (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh):

The word ‘fiqh’, when used in the form of ‘faqiha yafqahu’,

that is, in the fourth category, means ‘to know, to understand.’

When it is used in the fifth category, it means ‘to know, to

understand Islam.’ A scholar in ’ilm al-fiqh is called a faqîh. ’Ilm

al-fiqh deals with the actions which people should do and those

which they should not do. The knowledge of fiqh is composed

of Qur’ân al-kerîm, Hadîth ash-sherîf, ijmâ’ and qiyâs. The

consensus of the as-Sahâbat al-kirâm and the mujtahids who

came after them is called ijmâ’ al-Umma. The rules of the

religion derived from Qur’ân al-kerîm, Hadîth ash-sherîf and

[1] Al-hadîqa, p. 323 and in preface to Radd al-muhtâr.

- 46 -

ijmâ’ al-Umma are called qiyâs al-fuqahâ.’ If it could not be

understood from Qur’ân al-kerîm or Hadîth ash-sherîf whether

an action was halâl (permitted) or harâm (forbidden), then this

action was compared to another action which was known. This

comparison was called qiyâs. Applying qiyâs required the latter

action to have the same factor which made the former action

permitted or forbidden. And this could be judged only by those

profound ’ulamâ’ who had attained the grade of ijtihâd.

’Ilm al-fiqh is very extensive. It has four main divisions:

1) ’ibâdât, composed of five subdivisions: salât (namâz),

sawm (fast), zakât, hajj, jihâd. Each has many sections. As it is

seen, it is an ’ibâda to make preparations for jihâd. Our Prophet

(sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) explained that jihâd against the

enemies of Islam was of two kinds: by actions and by words. It

is fard to learn how to make and use new weapons in

preparation for jihâd by actions. Jihâd is done by the State. It is

fard for the people to join the jihâd by obeying the State’s laws

and orders concerning jihâd. Nowadays, enemy assault through

publications, motion pictures, radio broadcast and every means

of propaganda —the second kind of war— has tremendously

increased; therefore it is also jihâd to stand against the enemies

in this field.

2) munâkahât, composed of subdivisions, such as

marriage, divorce, alimony and many others [written in detail in

the book Se’âdet-i Ebediyye].

3) mu’âmalât, composed of many subdivisions, such as

purchase, sale, rent, joint-ownership, interest, inheritance, etc.

4) uqûbât (penal code), composed of five main subdivisions:

qisâs (lex talionis), sirqat (theft), zinâ (fornication and adultery),

qadhf (accusing a virtuous woman of incontinence) and ridda

(the case of becoming an apostate).

It is fard for every Muslim to learn the ’ibâdât part of fiqh

sufficiently. It is fard kifâya to learn munâkahât and mu’âmalât;

in other words, those who have anything to do with them should

learn them. After ’ilm at-tafsîr, ’ilm al-hadîth and ’ilm al-kalâm,

the most honourable ilm is ’ilm al-fiqh. The following six hadîths

will be enough to indicate the honour of fiqh and the faqîh:

‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ alaihim ajma’în’

‘If Allâhu ta’âlâ wants to bestow His blessing on a slave

of His, He makes a faqîh of him.’

- 47 -

‘If a person becomes a faqîh, Allâhu ta’âlâ sends what

he wishes and his sustenance through unexpected


‘The person about whom Allâhu ta’âlâ says “most

superior” is a faqîh in the religion.’

‘Against Satan, a faqîh is more stoic than one thousand

’âbids (those who worship much).’

‘Everything has a pillar to base itself upon. The basic

pillar of the religion is the knowledge of fiqh.’

‘The best and most valuable ’ibâda is to learn and teach


Superiority of al-Imâm al-a’zam Abu Hanîfa (rahmatullâhi

ta’âlâ ’aleyh) is also understood from these hadîths.

Rules of Islam in the Hanafî Madhhab were transmitted

through a chain beginning with ’Abdullâh ibn Mas’ûd (radiy-

Allâhu ’anh), who was a Sahâbî. Al-Imâm al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), the founder of the Madhhab,

acquired the knowledge of fiqh from Hammâd, and Hammâd

from Ibrâhîm an-Nakhâ’î. Ibrahim an-Nakhâ’î was taught by

Alkama, and Alkama studied under Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, who

was educated by Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam).

Abu Yûsuf, Imâm Muhammad ash-Shaibânî, Zufar ibn

Hudhail and Hasan ibn Ziyâd were al-Imâm al-a’zam’s disciples

(rahimahum-Allah). Of these, Imâm Muhammad wrote about

one thousand books on Islamic teachings. He was born in 135

A.H. and passed away in Rayy, Iran, in 189 (805 A.D.).

Because he was married to the mother of al-Imâm ash-Shâfi’î,

one of his disciples, all his books were left to Shafi’î upon his

death, thus Shafi’î’s knowledge increased. For this reason, al-

Imâm ash-Shâfi’î (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) said, ‘I swear that

my knowledge of fiqh increased by reading Imâm Muhammad’s

books. Those who want to deepen their knowledge of fiqh

should be in the company of the disciples of Abu Hanîfa.’ And

once he said, ‘All Muslims are like the household, children, of

al-Imâm al-a’zam.’ That is, as a man earns a living for his wife

and children, al-Imâm al-a’zam took it upon himself to find out

the religious knowledge which people needed in their matters.

Thus, he spared Muslims of a lot of hard work.

Al-Imâm al-a’zâm Abu Hanîfa (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh) compiled

the knowledge of fiqh, classified it into branches and sub-

48 -

branches, and set usûls (methods) for it. He also collected the

knowledge of i’tiqâd as Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)

and the as-Sahâbat al-kirâm (ridwânullâhi ’alaihim ajma’în) had

preached, and taught them to hundreds of his disciples. Some

of his disciples became specialists in ’ilm al-kalâm, that is, in the

teachings of îmân. Of them, Abu Bakr al-Jurjânî, one of Imâm

Muhammad ash-Shaibânî’s disciples, became famous. And Abû

Nasr al-’Iyâd, one of his pupils, educated Abû Mansûr al-

Mâturîdî in ’ilm al-kalâm. Abû Mansûr wrote in his books the

knowledge of kalâm as it came from al-Imâm al-a’zam

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh). By contending against heretics, he

consolidated the i’tiqâd of the Ahl as-Sunna. He disseminated it

out far and wide. He passed away in Samarqand in 333 (944

A.D.). This great ’âlim and another ’âlim, Abu ’l-Hasan al-

Ash’arî, are called the imâms of the Madhhabs of i’tiqâd of

the Ahl as-Sunna.

The fiqh scholars are grouped in seven grades. Kemâl

Pasha Zhada Ahmad ibn Sulaimân Effendi (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh), in his work Waqf an-niyyât, explained these seven

grades as follows:

1. The mujtahids of Islam, who constructed the methods and

principles of deriving tenets from the four sources of the religion

(Adilla-i arba’a), and derived tenets in accordance with the

principles they established. The four a’immat al-madhâhib

were of these.

2. The mujtahids in a Madhhab, who, following the principles

formulated by the imâm of the Madhhab, derived rules from the

four sources. They were Imâm Abû Yûsuf, Imâm Muhammad,

etc. (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în).

3. The mujtahids on matters (mas’ala), who for the matters

that were not dealt with by the founder of the Madhhab, derived

rules using the methods and principles of the Madhhab. Yet in

doing this, they had to follow the imâm. They were at-Tahâwî

(238-321 A.H., in Egypt), Hassâf Ahmad ibn ’Umar (d. 261, in

Baghdad), ’Abdullâh ibn Husain al-Karkhî (340), Shams ala’imma

al-Halwânî (456, in Bukhârâ), Shams al-a’imma as-

Sarahsî (483), Fakhr-ul Islâm ’Alî ibn Muhammad al-Pazdawî

(400-482, in Samarqand), Qâdî-Khân Hasan ibn Mansûr al-

Farghânî (592), etc. (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în).

4. As’hâb at-takhrîj, who were not able to employ ijtihâd.

They were scholars who briefly explained in brief unclear rules

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derived by mujtahids. Husâm ad-dîn ar-Râzî ’Alî ibn Ahmad (d.

593 A.H., in Damascus) was one of them. He (rahmatullâhi

ta’âlâ ’aleyh) wrote a commentary to Al-Qudûrî.

5. Arbâb at-tarjîh, who preferred one of the several riwâyas

(narrations or opinions of the mujtahids as narrated) coming

from mujtahids. They were Abu l’Hasan al-Qudûrî (362-428

A.H., in Baghdad) and Burhân ad-dîn ’Alî al-Marghinânî the

author of Al-hidâya, who was martyred by the soldiers of

Jenghiz in the Bukhârâ Massacre of 593 A.H. [1198 A.D.].

6. Those who wrote various riwâyas about a matter in an

order with respect to their reliability were called muqallids. They

did not include any refused riwâya in their books. Abû ’l-Barakât

’Abdullâh ibn Ahmad an-Nasafî (d. 710 A.H.), the author of

Kanz ad-daqâiq; ’Abdullâh ibn Mahmûd al-Musûlî (d. 683), the

author of Mukhtâr; Burhân ash-Sharî’a Mahmûd ibn Sadr ash-

Sharî’a ’Ubaid-Allâh (d. 673), the author of Al-wiqâya; and Ibn

as-Sâ’âtî Ahmad ibn ’Alî al-Baghdâdî (d. 694), the author of

Majmâ’ al-bahrain, are a few of them. (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’alaihim ajma’în).

7. They are also muqallids[1] incapable of distinguishing

weak riwâyas from genuine ones.


(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh)

The book Qâmûs al-a’lâm states:

Al-Imâm al-a’zâm Abû Hanîfa’s name was Nu’mân. His

father’s name was Thâbit. His grandfather’s name was Nu’man,

too. He was the first of the four great imâms of the Ahl as-

Sunna. ‘Imâm’ means ‘profoundly learned scholar.’ He was one

of the main pillars of the brilliant religion of Muhammad (‘alaihi

’s-salâm). He was a descendant of a Persian notable. His

grandfather had embraced Islam. He was born in Kûfa in 80

(698 A.D.). He was born early enough to see Anas ibn Mâlik,

’Abdullah ibn Abî Awfâ, Sahl ibn Sa’d as-Sâ’idî and Abû al-Fadl

Âmir ibn Wâsila, four Sahâbîs (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ anhum). He

learned ’ilm al-fiqh from Hammâd ibn Abî Sulaimân. He enjoyed

the companionship of many notables of the Tâbi’în, and of

[1] These were counted among fiqh scholars because they could

understand what they read, and explained them to the muqallids who

could not understand them.

- 50 -

Imâm Ja’far as-Sâdiq (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh). He

memorized innumerable hadîths. He was brought up so as to

become a great judge, but he became an imâm al-madhhab.

He had a superior, and amazingly keen intellect. In ’ilm al-fiqh,

he attained an unequalled grade in a short time. His name and

fame became world-wide.

Yazîd ibn ’Amr, Governor of Iraq during the time of Marwân

ibn Muhammad, the fourteenth and last Umayyad Khalîfa, who

was a grandson of Marwân ibn Hakam (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh) and was killed five years after assuming the caliphate in

Egypt in 132 (750 A.D.), proposed to Abû Hanîfa (rahmatullâhi

ta’âlâ ’aleyh) to become a judge for the law-court of Kûfa. But,

since he had as much zuhd, taqwâ and wara’ as he had

knowledge and intellect, he refused it. He was afraid of not

being able to safequard human rights because of human

weaknesses. With a command from Yazîd, he was given a

whipping, hundred and ten blows to the head. His blessed face

and head swelled. The next day, Yazîd took the Imâm out and

oppressed him by repeating his offer. The Imâm said, “Let me

consult,” and obtained permission to leave. He went to the

blessed city of Mekka and stayed there for five or six years.

The ’Abbâsid Khalîfa Abû Ja’far Mansûr (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh) commanded him to be the chief of the Supreme Court of

Appeal in 150 A.H. [767 A.D.]. He refused it and was put into

jail. He was subjected to whipping, ten blows more every

following day. When the number of whippings reached one

hundred, he attained martyrdom. Abû Sa’d Muhammad ibn

Mansûr al-Hârizmî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), one of the viziers

of Melikshâh (447-485 A.H., the third Seljuqî Sultan and the son

of Sultan Alparslan), had a wonderful dome built over his grave.

Afterwards, Ottoman emperors embellished and had his tomb

restored several times.

Abu Hanîfa (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) was the first who

compiled and classified ’ilm al-fiqh, and he gathered information

for each branch of knowledge. He wrote the books Farâ’id and

Shurût. There are innumerable books describing his extensive

knowledge on fiqh; his extraordinary ability in qiyâs; and his

dumbfounding superiority in zuhd, taqwâ, mildness and

righteousness. He had many disciples, some of whom became

great mujtahids.

The Hanafî Madhhab spread far and wide during the time of

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the Ottoman Empire. It almost became the official Madhhab of

the State. Today, more than half of the Muslims on the earth

and most of the Ahl as-Sunna perform their ’ibâda according to

the Hanafî Madhhab. Citation from the book Kâmûs-ul a’lâm

ends here.

The book Mîr’ât al-kâ’inât states:

The ancestors of al-Imâm al-â’zam (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

’aleyh) come from the province of Fâris, Iran. His father, Thâbit,

had met Imâm ’Alî (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) in Kûfa and Hadrat ’Alî

had pronounced a benediction over him and his descendants.

Al-Imâm al-a’zam was one of the greatest among the Tâbi’ûn

and saw Anas ibn Mâlik (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) and three or seven

more of the as-Sahâbat al-kirâm. He learned hadîth-i sherifs

from them.

A hadîth sherîf, which al-Imâm al-Hârizmî reported from Abû

Huraira (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) through isnâd muttasil (an

uninterrupted chain of reporters), states: “Among my Umma,

there will come a man called Abû Hanîfa. On the Day of

Resurrection, he will be the light of my Umma.” Another

hadîth sherîf states: “A man named Nu’mân ibn Thâbit and

called Abû Hanîfa will appear and will revive Allâhu ta’âlâ’s

Religion and my Sunna.” And another one states: “In every

century, a number of my Umma will attain to high grades.

Abû Hanîfa will be the highest of his time.” These three

hadîths are written in the book Mawdû’ât al-’ulûm and in Durr

al-mukhtâr. This hadîth sherîf is also well-known: “Among my

Umma, a man called Abû Hanîfa will appear. There is a

beauty-spot between his two shoulder blades. Allâhu ta’âlâ

will revive His Religion through his hand.”

[Preface to Durr al-mukhtâr writes: “A hadîth sherîf states:

‘As Âdam (’alaihi ’s-salâm) was proud of me so I am proud

of a man of my Umma named Nu’mân and called Abû

Hanîfa. He is the light of my Umma.’ ” Another hadîth sherîf

states: “Prophets (’alaihimu ’s-salâm) are proud of me. And I

am proud of Abû Hanîfa. He who loves him will have loved

me. He who feels hostility towards him will have felt

hostility towards me.” These hadîths are also written in the

book Al-muqaddima by the profound scholar Hadrat Abû ’l-

Laith as-Samarqandî and in Taqadduma, which is a

commentary to the former. In the preface to the fiqh book Almuqaddima

by al-Ghaznawî hadîths praising him are quoted.

- 52 -

In Diyâ’ al-ma’nawî, a commentary on it, Qâdî Abî ’l-Baqâ said,

’Abû’l-Faraj ’Abd ar-Rahmân ibn al-Jawzî, based on the words

of al-Khatîb al-Baghdâdî, said that these hadîths were mawdû’.

Yet this remark of his is bigotry, for these hadîths were reported

by several chains of transmitters. Ibn ’Âbidîn, in his commentary

on Durr al-mukhtâr, proved that these hadîths were not

mawdû’ and quoted the following hadîth sherîf from the book

Al-khairât al-hisân by Ibn Hajar al-Makkî: “The ornament of

the world will be taken away in the year 150.” He went on,

“The great fiqh scholar Shams al-a’imma ’Abd al-Ghaffâr al-

Kardarî (d. 562/1166 A.D.) said, “It is obvious that this hadîth

sherîf refers to al-Imâm al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa, since he passed

away in 150.” A hadîth sherîf given by al-Bukhârî and Muslim

says, “If îmân went to the planet Venus, a man of Fâris

(Persian) descent would bring it back.” Imâm as-Suyûtî, a

Shâfi’î ’âlim, remarked, “It has been communicated

unanimously that this hadîth sherîf refers to al-Imâm al-a’zam.”

Nu’mân Alûsî writes in the book Ghâliyya that this hadîth-i

sherîf refers to Abû Hanîfa and that his grandfather descended

from a Fâris family. ’Allâma Yûsuf, a Hanbalî scholar, quoted in

his work Tanwîr as-sahîfa from Hâfiz ’Allâma Yûsuf ibn ’Abd al-

Barr (b. 368/978 and d. 463/1071 in Shâtiba), Qadî of Lisbon,

Portugal, “Do not slander Abû Hanîfa and do not believe those

who slander him! I swear by Allâhu ta’âlâ that I know not a

person superior to him, having more wara’ or being more

learned than he. Do not believe what al-Khatîb al-Baghdâdî

said! He was antipathetic towards the ’ulamâ’. He slandered

Abû Hanîfa, Imâm Ahmad and their disciples. The ’ulamâ’ of

Islam refuted al-Khatîb and censured him. Ibn al-Jawzî’s

grandson, ’Allâma Yûsuf Shams ad-dîn al-Baghdâdî, wrote in

his forty-volumed book Mir’ât az-zamân that he was astonished

to know that his grandfather had followed al-Khatîb. Imâm al-

Ghazâlî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), in his Ihyâ’, praises al-

Imâm al-a’zam with such words as ‘’âbid’, ‘zâhid’ and ‘al-’ârifu

bi’llâh’. If the Sahâbat al-Kirâm and the ’ulamâ’ of Islam had

different points of view from one another, it was not because

they did not approve of each other’s words or because they

were unsociable to one another or because they disliked one

another; mujtahids (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în)

- 53 -

disagred with one another concerning ijtihâd for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s

sake and to serve Islam.”][1]

An ’âlim dreamt of Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)

and asked him, “What would you say about Abû Hanîfa’s

knowledge?” He answered, “Everybody needs his knowledge.”

Another ’âlim asked in his dream, “O Rasûl-Allah! What would

you say about the knowledge Nu’mân ibn Thâbit has, who lives

in Kûfa?” He answered, “Learn from him and do as he says. He

is a very good person.” Imâm ’Alî (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) said, “Let

me inform you of a person called Abû Hanîfa, who will live in

Kûfa. His heart will be full of knowledge and hikma (wisdom).

Towards the end of the world, many people will perish because

of not appreciating him, just as the Shî’ites will perish because

of not having appreciated Abû Bakr and ’Umar (radiy-Allâhu

’anhumâ).” Imâm Muhammad al-Bâqir ibn Zain al-’Âbidîn ’Alî

ibn Husain (rahmatullâhi ’alaihim, b. 57 A.H. in Medina and d.

113, buried in the shrine of Hadrat ’Abbâs (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) in

Medina) looked at Abû Hanîfa and said, “When those who

destroy the religion of my ancestors increase in number, you

will revive it. You will be the saviour of those who fear and the

shelter of those who are confused! You will lead the heretics to

the right way! Allâhu ta’âlâ will help you!” When he was young,

al-Imâm al-a’zâm (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) studied ’ilm alkalâm

and ma’rifa and became very competent. Then after

serving Imâm Hammâd for twenty-eight years, he attained

maturity. When Hammâd passed away, he took his place as a

mujtahid and muftî. His knowledge and superiority became

known far and wide. His virtue, intelligence, sagacity, zuhd,

taqwâ, trustworthiness, readiness of wit, devotion to Islam,

righteousness and his perfection in every respect as a human

being were above those of all others of his time. All the

mujtahids and those who succeeded him and noble people —

even Christians— praised him. Al-Imâm ash-Shâfi’î

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) said, “All men of fiqh are Abû

Hanîfa’s children.” He said once, “I get blessings (tabarruk) from

Abû Hanîfa[’s soul]. I visit his tomb every day. When I am in

difficulty, I go to his tomb and perform two rak’as of salât. I

invoke Allâhu ta’âlâ, and He gives me what I wish.” Al-Imâm

[1] It is explained in the second fascicle of Endless Bliss that a mawdû’

hadîth does not mean ‘false, made-up hadîth’ in ’ilm al-usûl al-hadîth.

- 54 -

ash-Shafi’î was a disciple of Imâm Muhammad.[1] He remarked,

“Allâhu ta’âlâ bestowed knowledge upon me through two

persons. I learned the Hadîth ash-sherîf from Sufyân ibn

’Uyaina and fiqh from Muhammad ash-Shaibânî.” He said once,

“In the field of religious knowledge and in worldly affairs, there is

one person to whom I am grateful. He is Imâm Muhammad.”

And again, al-Imâm ash-Shâfi’î said, “With what I learned from

Imâm Muhammad I have written a pack-animal-load of books. I

would not have acquired anything of knowledge had he not

been my teacher. All men of knowledge are the children of the

’ulamâ’ of Iraq, who were the disciples of the ’ulamâ’ of Kûfa.

And they were the disciples of Abû Hanîfa.”

Al-Imâm al-a’zam acquired knowledge from four thousand


The ’ulamâ’ of every century wrote many books describing

the greatness of al-Imâm al-a’zam.

In the Hanafî Madhhab, five hundred thousand religious

problems were solved and all of them were answered.

Al-Hâfiz al-kebîr Abû Bakr Ahmad al-Hârizmî wrote in his

book Musnad, “Saif al-a’imma reports that when al-Imâm ala’zam

Abû Hanîfa derived a matter from Qur’ân al-kerîm and

Hadîth ash-sherîf, he would propound it to his masters. He

would not give the answer to the inquirer unless all of them

confirmed it.” One thousand of his disciples attended all his

classes when he taught in the mosque of Kûfa city. Forty of

them were mujtahids. When he found the answer for a matter

he would propound it to his disciples. They would study it

together and, when they were all in agreement that it was

consistent with Qur’ân al-kerîm and Hadîth ash-sherîf and with

the words of the Sahâbat al-kirâm, he would be delighted and

say, “Al-hamdu li’llâh wa’llâhu akbar,” and all those who were

present would repeat his words. Then he would tell them to

write it down.

[It is written in the book Radd al-Wahhâbî:[1] “Being a

mujtahid requires first being specialized in the Arabic language

[1]. Al-Imâm al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa’s two leading disciples were Imâm

Muhammad ash-Shaibânî and Imâm Abû Yûsuf (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ


[1] First published in India in 1264 (1848 A.D.); reprinted in Persian in

Istanbul in 1401 (1981 A.D.).

- 55 -

and in the various linguistic sciences such as awdâ’, sahîh,

marwî, mutawâtir; ways of radd; mawdû’ vocabulary; fasîh, radî

and mazmûn forms; mufrad, shâdh, nâdir, musta’mal, muhmal,

mu’rab, ma’rifa, ishtiqaq, haqîqa, majâz, mushtarak, izdâd,

mutlaq, muqayyad, ibdâl and qalb. Next you must be

specialized in sarf, nahw, ma’ânî, bayân, badî’, balâghât, ’ilm alusûl

al-fiqh, ’ilm al-usûl al-hadîth, ’ilm al-usûl at-tafsîr, and have

memorized the words of the imâms of jarh and ta’dîl. Being a

faqîh requires, in addition to these, knowing the proof for every

matter and studying the meaning, the murâd and ta’wîl of the

proof. Being a muhaddith, that is, a scholar of hadîth, requires

only memorizing the hadîths as one heard them; it is not

compulsory to know the meanings, murâds, ta’wîls, or to

understand the proofs for the rules of Islam. If a faqîh and a

muhaddith disagree with each other about a hadîth sherîf, e.g. if

the former says that it is sahîh and the latter says that it is da’îf,

the faqîh’s word will be valid. Therefore, al-Imâm al-a’zâm’s

word or decision is more valuable than all the others because

he was the first mujtahid and the highest faqîh due to his having

heard many hadîths directly from the Sahâbat al-kirâm without

any intervention. A hadîth sherîf that was said to be sahîh by

this exalted imâm was said to be sahîh by all Islamic scholars.

A muhaddith cannot be in the grade of a faqîh. And he can

never reach the grade of an imâm al-madhhab.

’Abdulhaq ad-Dahlawî, a scholar of hadîth, wrote in his book

Sirât-i mustaqîm, “Some hadîths which al-Imâm ash-Shâfi’î

took as documents were not taken as documents by al-Imâm ala’zam

Abu Hanîfa. Seeing this, the lâ-madhhabî used it as an

opportunity for traducing al-Imâm al-a’zam and claimed that

Abû Hanîfa had not followed the hadîth ash-sherîf. However,

Hadrat al-Imâm al-a’zâm Abû Hanîfa found and took other

hadîths which were more sahîh and dependable in

documenting the matter.”

A hadîth sherîf states: “The most beneficial ones of my

Umma are those who live in my time. The next most

beneficial ones are those who succeed them. And the next

most beneficial ones are those who will come after them.”

This hadîth sherîf shows that the Tâbi’ûn were more beneficial

than Taba’ at-Tâbi’în. The Islamic ’ulamâ’ all agree that al-Imâm

al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa saw some of the as-Sahâbat al-kirâm,

heard hadîths from them, and, therefore, was one of the

- 56 -

Tâbi’ûn. For example, al-Imâm al-a’zam heard the hadîth, “A

person who builds a mosque for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s sake will be

given a villa in Paradise,” from ’Abdullah ibn Awfâ, who was a

Sahâbî. Jalâl ad-dîn as-Suyûtî, a Shâfi’î scholar, wrote in his

book Tabyîd as-sahîfa that al-Imâm ’Abdulkarîm, one of the

Shâfi’î scholars, wrote a complete book describing the Sahâbis

whom al-Imâm al-a’zam had seen. It is written in Durr almukhtâr

that al-Imâm al-a’zam saw seven Sahâbîs. Among the

four a’immat al-madhâhib, only al-Imâm al-a’zam was honoured

with being one of the Tâbi’ûn. It is a rule in ’ilm al-usûl that the

view of those who admit something is preferred to the view of

those who refuse it. It is obvious that al-Imâm al-a’zam Abû

Hanîfa, being one of the Tâbi’ûn, is the highest of the a’immat

al-madhâhib. The lâ-madhhabîs’ denying al-Imam al-a’zam’s

superiority or their trying to vilify this exalted Imâm by saying

that he was weak in the knowledge of hadîth, is similar to their

denying the superiority of Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat ’Umar

(radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ). This perverse negation of theirs is not a

sort of illness that can be cured by preaching or advice. May

Allâhu ta’âlâ cure them! The Muslims’ Khalîfa ’Umar (radiy-

Allâhu ’anh) said during his khutba: “O Muslims! As I tell you

now, Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) told us during his

khutba: “The most beneficial people are my Sahâba. The

most beneficial after them are their successors. And the

next most beneficial are those who will come after them.

There will be liars among those who will come after these.’

” The four Madhhabs which Muslims have been following and

imitating today are the Madhhabs of those beneficial people

whose goodness was affirmed by Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi

wa sallam). The Islamic ’ulamâ’ declare in consensus that it is

not permissible to adopt a Madhhab other than these four


Ibn Nujaim al-Misrî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), author of the

book Bahr ar-râ’iq, wrote in his work Ashbâh, “Hadrat al-Imâm

ash-Shâfi’î said that a person who wanted to be a specialist in

the knowledge of fiqh should read Abû Hanîfa’s books.”

Abdullah Ibn Mubârak said, “I have not seen another specialist

as learned as Abû Hanîfa in the knowledge of fiqh. The great

’âlim Mis’ar used to kneel in front of Abû Hanîfa and learn what

he did not know by asking him. I have studied under a thousand

’ulamâ’. Yet, had I not seen Abû Hanîfa, I would have slipped

- 57 -

into the bog of Greek philosophy.” Abû Yûsuf said, “I have not

seen another person as profoundly learned as Abû Hanîfa in

the knowledge of hadîth. There is not another ’âlim who can

expound hadîths as competently as he did.” The great ’âlim and

mujtahid Sufyân ath-Thawrî said, “In comparison with Abû

Hanîfa, we were like sparrows versus a falcon. Abû Hanîfa is

the leader of the ’ulamâ’.” ’Alî ibn Âsim said, “If Abû Hanîfa’s

knowledge were to be measured with the total knowledge of all

the ’ulamâ’ contemporary with him, Abû Hanîfa’s knowledge

would prove to be greater.” Yazîd ibn Hârûn said, “I studied

under a thousand ’ulamâ’. Among them I did not see anyone

who had as much wara’ as Abû Hanîfa did or who was as wise

as Abû Hanîfa (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh).” Muhammad ibn

Yûsuf ash-Shâfi’î, one of the Damascene ’ulamâ’, praises al-

Imâm al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa much, explains his superiority in

detail, and says that he is the leader of all mujtahids in his book

Uqûd al-jamân fî manâqibi’n-Nu’mân. Al-Imâm al-a’zam Abû

Hanîfa said, “We esteem and love Rasûlullâh’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm)

hadîths above all. We search for the words of the Sahâbat alkirâm,

choose and adopt them. As for the words of the Tâbi’ûn,

they are like our words. Translation from the book Radd-i

Wahhâbî ends here. This book was printed in India and in

Istanbul, in 1264 (1848 A.D.) and in 1401 (1981 A.D.),


In the book Sayf-ul-muqallidîn alâ a’nâk-il-munkirîn,

Mawlânâ Muhammad ’Abd al-Jalîl wrote in Persian: “The lâmadhhabî

say that Abû Hanîfa was weak in the knowledge of

hadîth. This assertion of theirs shows that they are ignorant or

jealous. Al-Imâm az-Zahabî and Ibn Hajar al-Makkî say that al-

Imâm al-a’zam was an ’âlim of hadîth. He learned hadîths from

four thousand ’ulamâ’. Three hundred of them were among the

Tâbi’ûn and were ’ulamâ’ of hadîth. Al-Imâm ash-Sha’rânî says

in the first volume of al-Mîzân, ‘I have studied three of al-Imâm

al-a’zam’s Musnads. All of them transmit information from the

well-known ’ulamâ’ of the Tâbi’ûn.’ Hostility which the lâmadhhabî

people bear against the Salaf as-sâlihîn and their

jealousy towards the mujtahid imâms, particularly towards their

leader al-Imâm al-Muslimîn Abû Hanîfa, must have obstructed

their perception and conscience to the extent that they deny the

beauty and superiority of these Islamic ’ulamâ’. They are

intolerant of the fact that pious people have what they do not

- 58 -

have. It is for this reason that they deny the superiority of the

imâms of Islam and thus venture into the shirk (polytheism) of

jealousy. It is written in the book Hadâ’iq: ‘When al-Imâm ala’zam

Abû Hanîfa memorized hadîths he wrote them down. He

kept the hadîth books he wrote in wooden boxes, some of

which he always kept at hand wherever he went. His quoting

only a few hadîths does not show that the number of hadîths he

memorized was small. Only bigotted enemies of Islam may say

so. This bigotry of theirs proves al-Imâm al-a’zam’s perfection;

an inept person’s slandering the learned indicates the latter’s

perfection.’ Founding a great Madhhab and answering

hundreds of thousands of questions by documenting them with

âyats and hadîths could not have been done by a person who

was not deeply specialized in the sciences of tafsîr and hadîth.

In fact, bringing forth a new, unique Madhhab without a model

or an example is an excellent proof for al-Imâm al-a’zam’s

expertise in the sciences of tafsîr and hadîth. Because he

worked with extraordinary energy and brought forth this

Madhhab, he did not have time to quote the hadîths or to cite

their transmitters one by one; this cannot be grounds for

denigrating that exalted imâm by jealously casting aspersions

on him by saying that he was weak in the knowledge of hadîth.

It is a known fact that riwâya (transmitting) without dirâya

(ability, intelligence) has no value. For example, Ibn Abd al-Barr

said, ‘If riwâya without dirâya were valuable, a dustman’s

quoting a hadîth would be superior to Luqmân’s intelligence.’

Ibn Hajar al-Makkî was one of the ’ulamâ’ in the Shâfi’î

Madhhab, but he wrote in his book Qalâ’id: ‘The great âlim of

hadîth A’mash asked al-Imâm al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa many

questions. Al-Imâm al-a’zam answered each of his questions by

quoting hadîths. After seeing al-Imâm al-a’zam’s profound

knowledge in hadîth, A’mash said, “O, you, the ’ulamâ’ of fiqh!

You are like specialized doctors, and we the ’ulamâ’ of hadîth

are like pharmacists. We cite hadîths and their transmitters, but

you are the ones who understand their meanings.” ’ It is written

in the book ’Uqûd al-jawâhiri ’l-munîfa: ‘While ’Ubaidullah ibn

’Amr was in the company of the great ’âlim of hadîth A’mash,

someone came up and asked a question. As A’mash thought

about the answer, al-Imâm al-a’zam joined in. A’mash repeated

the question to the Imâm and requested an answer. Al-Imâm ala’zam

immediately answered it in detail. Admiring the answer,

- 59 -

A’mash said, “O Imâm! From which hadîth do you derive this?”

Al-Imâm al-a’zam quoted the hadîth ash-sherîf from which he

derived the answer and added, “I heard this from you.” ’ Al-

Imâm al-Bukhârî knew three hundred thousand hadîths by

heart. He wrote only twelve thousand of them in his books

because he feared very much the threat in the hadîth ashsherîf,

“If a person quotes, in the name of hadîth, what I

have not uttered, he will be tormanted very bitterly in Hell.”

Having much wara’ and taqwâ, al-Imâm al-a’zam imposed very

heavy conditions for the transmitting of hadîths. He would quote

only those hadîths fulfilling these conditions. Some ’ulamâ’ of

hadîth transmitted numerous hadîths because their branch was

wider and their conditions were lighter. The ’ulamâ’ of hadîth

never belittled one another on account of differing conditions.

Had this not been so, Imâm Muslim would have said something

to offend al-Imâm al-Bukhârî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihimâ). Al-

Imâm al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa’s transmitting only a few hadîths

because of his circumspection and taqwâ could only be a good

reason for praising and lauding him.”[1]]

The book Mir’ât al-kâ’inât goes on: “Al-Imâm al-a’zam Abû

Hanîfa (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) performed morning prayer in

a mosque and answered his disciples’ questions until noon

every day. After early afternoon prayer, he taught his disciples

again until night prayer. Then he would go home and, after

resting for a while, return to the mosque and worship until

morning prayer. Mis’ar ibn Kadâm al-Kûfî, one of the Salaf assâlihîn,

who passed away in 115 (733 A.D.), and many other

great people reported this fact.

“He earned his living in a halâl way by trading. He sent

goods to other places and with his earnings he met the needs

of his disciples. He spent much for his household and gave an

equal amount as alms to the poor. Moreover, every Friday he

distributed twenty gold coins to the poor for his parents’ souls.

He did not stretch his legs towards his teacher Hammâd’s

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) house, though he lived at a distance

of seven streets away. Once he found out that one of his

partners had sold a large amount of goods incompatibly with

Islam. He distributed all the ninety thousand aqchas earned to

the poor, not taking one penny of it. After brigands had raided

[1] Saif al-muqallidîn ’alâ a’nâqi ’l-munkirîn.

- 60 -

the villages of Kûfa and had stolen sheep, he, thinking that

these stolen sheep might be slaughtered and sold in the town,

did not eat mutton for seven years, for he knew that a sheep

lived seven years at the longest. He abstained from the harâm

to that degree. He observed Islam in his every action.

“For forty years al-Imâm al-a’zam (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh)

performed the morning prayer with the ablution he had made for

the night prayer [that is, he did not sleep after the night prayer.]

He performed hajj fifty-five times. During the last one, he went

into the Ka’ba, performed a prayer of two rak’as and recited the

whole Qur’ân al-kerîm during the prayer. Then, weeping, he

invoked, ‘O my Allâhu ta’âlâ! I have not been able to worship

Thee in a manner worthy of Thee. Yet I have understood very

well that Thou cannot be comprehended through intelligence.

For this understanding of mine, please forgive the defects in my

service!’ At that moment a voice was heard, ‘O Abû Hanîfa! You

have acknowledged Me very well and have served Me

beautifully. I have forgiven you and those who will be in your

Madhhab and follow you until the end of the world.’ He read

Qur’ân al-kerîm from the beginning to the end once every day

and once every night.

“Al-Imâm al-a’zam had so much taqwâ that for thirty years

he fasted every day [except the five days of a year on which it is

harâm to fast]. He often read the entire Qur’ân al-kerîm in one

rak’a or two. And sometimes, during sâlât or outside it, he read

an âyat describing Heaven and Hell over and over again and

sobbed and lamented.[1] Those who heard him pitied him.

Among the Umma of Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm), reciting the

entire Qur’ân al-kerîm in a single rak’a of salât fell to the lot of

only ’Uthmân ibn ’Affân, Tamîm ad-Dârî, Sa’d ibn Jubair and al-

Imâm al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa. He did not accept any presents

from anyone. He wore clothes like those of the poor. Yet at

times, in order to exhibit the blessings of Allâhu ta’âlâ, he wore

very valuable clothes. He performed hajj fifty-five times and

stayed in Mekka for several years. Only at the place where his

soul was taken, he had read the entire Qur’ân al-kerîm seven

thousand times. He said, “I laughed once in my life, and I regret

it.” He talked little and thought much. He discussed some

[1] Crying out of love for Allâh ta’âlâ in salât does not break the salât in the

Hanafî Madhhab.

- 61 -

religious matters with his disciples. One night, while leaving the

mosque immediately after performing the night prayer in jamâ’a,

he began to talk with his disciple Zufar on some subject. One of

his feet was inside the mosque and the other was outside. The

conversation continued until the morning adhân. Then, without

taking the other step out, he went back in for the morning

prayer. Because ’Alî (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) had said, ‘It is

permissible to have a personal allowance of up to four thousand

dirhams,’ he distributed to the poor what was more than four

thousand dirhams of his earnings.

“The Khalîfa Mansûr revered the Imâm very much. He

presented him ten thousand aqchas and a jâriya. The Imâm did

not accept them. At that time one aqcha was worth one dirham

of silver. In 145 A.H., Ibrâhîm ibn ’Abdullâh ibn Hasan ibn ’Alî

was recruiting men in order to help his brother Muhammad

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim ajma’în), who had proclaimed

himself the Khalîfa in al-Madînat al-munawwara. When he came

to Kûfa, it was rumoured that Abû Hanîfa was helping him.

Mansûr heard this and had the Imâm taken from Kûfa to

Baghdad. He told him to tell everybody that Mansûr was

rightfully the Khalîfa. He offered him the presidency of the

Supreme Court of Appeal as a recompense. He imposed on

him very much. The Imâm did not accept it. Mansûr imprisoned

him and had him thrashed with a stick thirty strokes. His

blessed feet bled. Mansûr repented and sent him thirty

thousand aqchas, only to be refused again. He was imprisoned

again and thrashed ten strokes more every day. [According to

some report] on the eleventh day, for fear that the people might

rebel, he was forced to lie down on his back and poisonous

sherbet (a sweet fruit drink) was poured into his mouth. As he

was about to die, he prostrated (sajda). Some fifty thousand

people performed janâza salât for him. Because of the

enormous crowd, it was performed with difficulty and finished

not before the late afternoon prayer. For twenty days many

people came to his tomb and performed janâza salât for him

near his tomb.

“He had seven hundred and thirty disciples. Each of them

was famed for his virtue and pious deeds. Many of them

became qâdîs or muftîs. His son Hammâd (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ

aleyh) was one of his notable disciples.” Passages from the

book Mir’ât-ul-kâinât end here.

- 62 -

They have been leaders guiding the ahl-i dîn,

rahmatullâhi ’alaihim ajma’în.

There were some disagreements between al-Imâm al-a’zam

and his disciples on the information that was to be deduced

through ijtihâd. The following hadîth ash-sherîf declares that

these disagreements were useful: “Disagreement (on the

’âmâl, practices) among my Umma is [Allâhu ta’âlâ’s]

compassion.” He feared Allâhu ta’âlâ very much and was very

careful in following Qur’ân al-kerîm. He said to his disciples, “If

you come across a document (sanad) inconsistent with my

words on a subject, ignore my words and follow that document.”

All his disciples swore, “Even our words inconsistent with his

words surely depend on a proof (dalîl, sanad) we had heard

from him.”

Hanafî muftîs have to issue fatwâs agreeable with what al-

Imâm al-a’zam said. If they cannot find his word, they should

follow Imâm Abû Yûsuf. After him, Imâm Muhammad should be

followed. If the words of Imâm Abû Yûsuf and Imâm

Muhammad are on one side and those of al-Imâm al-a’zam on

the other, a muftî may issue a fatwâ according to either side.

When there is darûra (a pressing difficulty), he may issue a

fatwâ suitable with the words of the mujtahid who showed the

easiest way. He cannot issue a fatwâ that does not depend on

the words of any of the mujtahids; such an issue cannot be

called a fatwâ.



Although they say they are Muslims, Wahhâbîs, also called

Najdîs, are one of the groups who have departed from the Ahl


Ahmed Cevdet Paşa, a statesman, and Eyyûb Sabrî

Paşa [d. 1308 (1890 A.D.)], Rear-Admiral during the time of

the thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan ’Abd al-Hamîd Khân II

[1258-1336 (1842-1918), buried in the shrine of Sultan

Mahmûd in Istanbul] (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaihim), each

wrote a history book, in which they explained Wahhâbism

in full detail.[1] The following is derived, for the most part,

[1] The seventh volume of the former’s 12-volume Târîkh-i Othmânî and

the third volume of the latter’s 5-volume Mir’ât al-Haramain (p. 99.

- 63 -

from the latter’s book, who translated this information form

Ahmad Zaynî Dahlân’s[2] book “Fitnat al-Wahhâbiyya.” He

passed away in 1308 (1890 A.D.).

Wahhâbism was established by Muhammad ibn ’Abd al-

Wahhâb. He was born in Huraimila in Najd in 1111 (1699 A.D.)

and died in 1206 (1791 A.D.). Formerly, he had been to Basra,

Baghdad, Iran, India and Damascus with a view to travelling

and trade. He was in Basra when, in 1125 [1713 A.D.], he

succumbed to a snare set by Hempher, who was only one of

the numerous British spies, and served as a tool in the British

plans to (destroy Islam). He published the absurdities prepared

by the spy in the name of Wahhabism. Our book Confessions

of A British Spy gives detailed information on the

establishment of Wahhabism. There he found and read books

written by Ahmad Ibn Taimiyya of Harrân [661-728 (1263-1328),

d. in Damascus], the contents of which were incompatible with

the Ahl as-Sunna. Being a very cunning person, he became

known as ash-Shaikh an-Najdî. His book Kitâb at-tawhîd,[3]

which he prepared in cooperation with the British spy, was

annotated by his grandson, ’Abd ar-Rahmân, and was

interpolated and published in Egypt with the title Fat’h al-majîd

by a Wahhâbî called Muhammad Hamîd. Muhammad ibn ’Abd

al-Wahhâb’s ideas spread among villagers, the inhabitants of

Dar’iyya and their chief, Muhammad ibn Su’ûd. Those who

accepted his ideas, which he termed Wahhâbiyya, are called

Wahhâbîs or Najdîs. They increased in number, and he

imposed himself as the qâdî and Muhammad ibn Su’ûd as the

amîr (ruler). He declared it as a law that only their own

descendants should succeed them.

Muhammad’s father, ’Abd al-Wahhâb, who was a pious

Muslim and a scholar of Medina, apprehended from Ibn ’Abd al-

Wahhâb’s words that he would start a perverted movement and

advised everybody not to talk with him. But he proclaimed

Wahhâbism in 1150 (1737 A.D.). He spoke ill of the ijtihâds of

Turkish, the Library of Süleymâniyye).

[2] Ahmad Dahlân ‘rahmatullâhi ’aleyh’, (1231 [1816], Mekka-1304 [1886],

Medina), Mufti of Mekka.

[3] Meccan scholars wrote very beautiful answers to Kitâb at-tawhîd and

refuted it with sound documents in 1221. The collection of their

refutations, titled Saif al-Jabbâr, which was later printed in Pakistan,

was reproduced in Istanbul in 1395 [1975 A.D.].

- 64 -

the ’ulamâ’ of Islam. He went so far as to call the Ahl as-Sunna

“disbelievers.” He said that he who visited the shrine of a

Prophet or of a Walî and addressed him as “Yâ Nabî-Allâh!” (O

Allah’s Prophet) or as, “Yâ ’Abd al-Qâdir!” would become a

polytheist (mushrik).

The Wahhâbî point of view is that he who says that anybody

besides Allâhu ta’âlâ did something becomes a polytheist, a

disbeliever. For example, he who says, “Such and such

medicine relieved the pain,” or “Allâhu ta’âlâ accepted my

prayers near the tomb of such and such a Prophet or Walî,”

becomes a polytheist. To prove these ideas, he puts forth as

documents the âyat al-kerîma: “Iyyâka nasta’în” (Only Thy

help we ask) of the Sûrat al-Fatiha and the âyats expounding


The book Al-Usûl-ul-arba’a fî-terdîd-il-wahhâbiyya, at the

end of its second part, says in Persian:

The Wahhâbîs and other lâ-madhhâbî people cannot

comprehend the meanings of majâz[2] and isti’âra’ (metaphor).

Whenever somebody says that he did something, they call him

a polytheist or a disbeliever though his expression is a majâz.

However, Allâhu ta’âlâ declares in many âyats of Qur’ân alkerîm

that He is the Real Maker of every act and that man is the

majâzî maker. In the 57th âyat of Sûrat al-An’âm and in Sûrat

[1] The correct meanings of these âyats by the ’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-Sunna

and the matters of tawhîd and tawakkul are written in detail in Endless

Bliss, Third Fascicle, Chapter 35. Those who know the correct

meaning of ‘tawhîd’ will understand that the Wahhâbîs, who consider

themselves muwahhids, are not muwahhids (believers in tawhîd Majâz

is the use of a word not in its usual or obvious literal meaning but in a

sense connected to its meaning. When a word special to Allâhu ta’âlâ

is used for men in a majâzî (figurative, symbolic) sense, the Wahhâbîs

take it in its literal meaning and call the one who uses it symbolically a

polytheist and disbeliever; they are unaware that such words are used

for men in symbolical senses in Qur’ân al-kerîm and Hadîth ashsherîf.).

[2] Majâz is the use of a word not in its usual or obvious literal meaning but

in a sense connected to its meaning. When a word special to Allâhu

ta’âlâ is used for men in a majâzî (figurative, symbolic) sense, the

Wahhâbîs take it in its literal meaning and call the one who uses it

symbolically a polytheist and disbeliever; they are unaware that such

words are used for men in symbolical senses in Qur’ân al-kerîm and

Hadîth ash-sherîf.

- 65 -

Yûsuf, He says: “The decision (hukm) is Allâhu ta’âlâ’s

alone,” that is, Allâhu ta’âlâ is the only Decider (Hâkim). In the

64th âyat of the Sûrat an-Nisâ’, He says: “They will not be

Believers unless they make thee (the Prophet) judge

(yuhakkimûnaka) of what is in dispute between them.” The

former âyat states that Allâhu ta’âlâ is the only Real Hâkim, and

the latter states that man can be metaphorically referred to as a


Every Muslim knows that Allâhu ta’âlâ alone is the One who

gives life and takes life away, for He declares: “He alone gives

and takes life,” in the 56th âyat of the Sûrat Yûnus, and,

“Allâhu ta’âlâ is the One who makes man dead at the time

of his death,” in the 42nd âyat of the Sûrat az-Zumar. In the

11th âyat of the Sûrat as-Sajda, He says as a majâz: “The

angel who is appointed as the deputy to take life takes your


Allâhu ta’âlâ alone is the One who gives health to the sick,

for the 80th âyat of Sûrat ash-Shu’arâ states: “When I become

sick, only He gives me recovery.” He quotes ’Îsâ (’alaihi ’ssalâm)

in the 49th âyat of the Âl-i ’Imrân sûra as saying: “I heal

him who is blind and baras,[1] and I bring the dead back to

life by Allâhu ta’âlâ’s permission.” The One who gives a child

to man is actually He; the 18th âyat of the Sûrat Mariam states

[the Archangel] Jabrâ’îl’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) majâzî words, “I will

give you a pure son.”

The real owner of man is Allâhu ta’âlâ. The 257th âyat of the

Sûrat al-Baqara states this openly: “Allâhu ta’âlâ is the Walî

(Protector, Guardian) of those who believe.” And by saying,

“Allâhu ta’âlâ and His Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) are your

walîs,” and “The Prophet protects the Believers more than

they protect themselves,” in the 56th and 6th âyats of Sûras

al-Mâ’ida and al-Ahzâb, respectively, He means that man, too,

though symbolically, is a walî. Similarly, the real helper is Allâhu

ta’âlâ, and He also calls men ‘mu’în’ (helper) metaphorically. He

says in the third âyat of the Sûrat al-Mâ’ida: “Help one another

in goodness and piety (taqwâ).” Wahhâbîs use the word

‘mushrik’ (polytheist) for those Muslims who call somebody an

’abd (servant, slave) of someone other than Allâhu ta’âlâ, for

[1] A skin-diseased person, albion or vitiligo, with complete or partial

whiteness, respectively, of the skin.

- 66 -

example, ‘’Abd an-Nabî’ or ‘’Abd ar-Rasûl’; however, in the

32nd âyat of Sûrat an-Nûr, it is declared: “Give in marriage

your unmarried women and those pious ones among your

slaves and female slaves.” The Real Rabb (Trainer) of men is

Allâhu ta’âlâ, but someone else can also be called ‘rabb’

metaphorically; in the 42nd âyat of the Sûrat Yûsuf is said,

“Mention me in the presence of your rabb.”

‘Istighâtha’ is what the Wahhâbîs oppose most: ‘to ask help

or protection of someone other than Allâhu ta’âlâ,’ which they

call polytheism. In fact, as all Muslims know, true istighâtha is

only for Allâhu ta’âlâ. However, it is permissible to say

metaphorically that one can do istighâtha for someone, for, it is

declared in the 15th âyat of Sûrat al-Qassass: “People of his

tribe did istighâtha for him against the enemy.” A hadîth

sherîf says, “They will do istighâtha for Âdam (’alaihi ’ssalâm)

at the place of the Mahshar.” A hadîth sherîf written in

Al-hisn al-hasîn, says, “He who needs help should say, ‘O

Allâhu ta’âlâ’s slaves!Help me!’ ” This hadîth sherîf

commands one to call for help from someone not near him.”[1]

Translation from the book Al-Usûl-ul-arba’a ends here.

[Every word has a distinguishable meaning, which is called

the real meaning of that word. The word will be called majâz

when it is not used in its real meaning but in any other meaning

which can be related to it. When a word special to Allâhu ta’âlâ

is used as majâz for human beings, Wahhâbî people will think

that the word is being used with its real meaning. So, they will

call a person who uses the word mushriq, or kâfir. But they

should pay attention to the fact that these words are used as

majâz in âyats and hadîth-i sherîfs for human beings.]

To ask for shafâ’a (intercession) and help from Rasûlullah

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) and the Awliyâ’ does not mean to turn away

from Allâhu ta’âlâ or to forget that He is the Creator. It is like

expecting rain from Him through the cause or means (wâsita) of

[1] Al-usûl al-arba’a fî tardîd al-Wahhâbiyya (in Persian), end of the

second part, India, 1346 (1928 A.D.); photographic reproduction,

Istanbul, 1395 (1975 A.D.). This book was written by Muhammad

Hasan Jân Sâhib, one of the grandsons of hadrat Imâm Rabbânî

‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ alaihimâ’. The author, Jân Sâhib, refutes the

Wahhâbîs and other lâ-madhhabî people also in his Arabic work Tarîq

an-najât, India, 1350 (with Urdu translation); photographic

reproduction, Istanbul, 1396 (1976 A.D.).

- 67 -

clouds; expecting cure from Him by taking medicine; expecting

victory from Him by using cannons, bombs, rockets and

aeroplanes. These are causes. Allâhu ta’âlâ creates everything

through causes. It is not polytheism (shirk) to stick to these

causes. Prophets ’alaihim-us-salâm always clung to causes. As

we go to a fountain to drink water, which Allâhu ta’âlâ created,

and to the bakery to get bread, which again He created, and as

we make armaments and drill and train our troops so that Allâhu

ta’âlâ will give us victory, so we set our hearts on the soul of a

Prophet or a Walî in order that Allâhu ta’âlâ will accept our

prayers. To use a radio in order to hear a sound which Allâhu

ta’âlâ creates through the means of electro-magnetic waves

does not mean to forget about Him and have recourse to a box,

for He is the One who gives this peculiarity, this power, to the

apparatus in the radio box. Allâhu ta’âlâ has concealed His

Omnipotence in everything. A polytheist worships idols but does

not think of Allâhu ta’âlâ. A Muslim, when he uses causes and

means, thinks of Allâhu ta’âlâ, who gives effectiveness and

peculiarities to the causes and creatures. Whatever he wishes,

he expects it from Allâhu ta’âlâ. He knows that whatever he

gets comes from Allâhu ta’âlâ. The meaning of the abovementioned

âyat shows that this is true. That is, when saying the

Sûrat al-Fâtiha in each salât, the Believer says, ‘O my Rabb! I

hold on to material and scientific causes in order to get my

worldly desires and needs, and beg Thine beloved slaves to

help me. As I do so, and always, I believe that Thou alone is the

Giver, the Creator of wishes. From Thee alone I expect!’

Believers who say this every day can not be said to be

polytheists. To ask for help from the souls of Prophets and

Awliyâ’ is to hold on to these causes, which were created by

Allâhu ta’âlâ. This âyat of Sûrat al-Fâtiha states clearly that

they are not polytheists but true Believers. Wahhâbîs also stick

to material and scientific means. They satisfy their sensual

desires by any means. But they call it “polytheism” to have

recourse to Prophets and Awliyâ’ as mediators.

Since the words of Muhammad ibn ’Abd al-Wahhâb were all

in accordance with sensual desires, those who did not have

religious knowledge believed them easily. They asserted that

the ’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-Sunna and Muslims of the right way

were disbelievers. Amîrs (leaders) found Wahhâbism consistent

with their desires to increase their power and to extend their

- 68 -

lands and territories. They forced the Arab tribes to become

Wahhâbî. They killed those who did not believe them. Villagers,

from fear of death, obeyed the amîr of Dar’iyya, Muhammad ibn

Sa’ûd. Becoming soldiers of the amîr suited their desires to

attack the property, life and chastity of non-Wahhâbîs.

Shaikh Sulaimân, Muhammad ibn ’Abd al-Wahhâb’s brother,

was an ’alîm of the Ahl as-Sunna. This blessed person refuted

Wahhâbism in his book As-sawâ’iq al-ilâhiyya fî ’r-raddi ’alâ

’l-Wahhâbiyya and deterred the dissemination of its heretical

tenets. This valuable book was printed in the year 1306. It was

also printed in offset process in Istanbul in 1395 [1975 A.D.].

Muhammad’s teachers, who realized that he had opened a way

leading to evil, refuted his corrupt books. They announced that

he had deviated from the right way. They proved that Wahhâbîs

gave wrong meanings to âyats and hadîths. Yet all these

increased the villagers’ resentment and hostility against the


Wahhâbism was spread not through knowledge but through

cruelty and bloodshed by ignorant people. Of the cruel who

soaked their hands with blood in this way, the amîr or Dar’iyya,

Muhammad ibn Sa’ûd, was the most stone-hearted. This man

was of the Banî Hanîfa tribe and was one of the descendants of

those idiots who had believed Musailamat al-kadhdhâb as a

prophet. He died in 1178 [1765 A.D.] and was succeeded by his

son ’Abd-ul-’azîz, who, in his turn, was slain by a Shiite in 1217.

He was succeeded by his son Sa’ûd, who died in 1231. His son

Abdullah took his place, only to be executed in Istanbul in 1240.

His place was taken by Tarkî bin Abdullah, a grandson of ’Abdul-’

azîz’s. The person to succeed him, in 1254, was his son

Faisal, who in his turn was succeeded by his son Abdullah in

1282. His brother ’Abd-ur-rahmân and his son ’Abd-ul-’azîz

settled in Kuwait. In 1319 [1901 A.D.] ’Abd-ul-’azîz moved to

Riyâd and became the Emîr. In 1918 he attacked Mekka in

cooperation with the British. In 1351 [1932 A.D.] he established

the State of Sa’udi Arabia. We read in newspapers issued in

1991 that Fahd, the Emîr of Su’ûd, had sent four billion dollars

as an aid to the Russian disbelievers who had been fighting the

Mujahideen in Afghanistan.

Wahhâbîs claim that they are on the way of being sincere in

believing in the Oneness of Allâhu ta’âlâ and in escaping

disbelief, that all Muslims have been polytheists for six hundred

- 69 -

years, and that they have been trying to save them from

disbelief. To prove themselves right, they put forward the fifth

âyat kerîma of Sûrat al-Ahqâf and the 106th âyat kerîma of the

Sûrat Yûnus. However, all the commentaries of Qur’ân al-kerîm

unanimously write that these two âyats and many others have

all been sent down for polytheists. The first of these âyats is:

“No one is more heretical than the one who turns away

from Allâhu ta’âlâ and prays to things which will never hear

till the end of the world.’ And the other is: “Tell the Meccan

polytheists, ‘I was commanded not to pray to things, which

are neither useful nor harmful, other than Allâhu ta’âlâ. If

you pray to anyone but Allâhu ta’âlâ, you will be torturing

and doing harm to yourselves!”

The book Kashf ash-shubuhât deals with the third âyat

kerîma of Sûrat az-Zumar, which declares: “Those who accept

things other than Alâhu ta’âlâ as guardians say, ‘If we

worship them, we worship them so that they might help us

approach Allâhu ta’âlâ and intercede for us.’ ” This âyat

kerîma quotes the words of polytheists who worship idols. The

book likens Muslims who ask for shafâ’a to such polytheists and

intentionally says that polytheists also believed that their idols

were not creative but that Allâhu ta’âlâ alone was the Creator.

In an interpretation of this âyat kerîma, the book Rûh al-bayân

says, “Human creatures are created with the ability to

acknowledge the Creator, who created them and everything.

Every human creature feels the desire to worship his Creator

and to be drawn towards Him. Yet this ability and desire are

worthless, for the nafs, Satan or bad companions might deceive

man, [and as a result, this innate desire will be destroyed,] and

man will become [either an unbeliever in the Creator and the

Last Day like communists and freemasons or] a polytheist. A

polytheist cannot approach Allâhu ta’âlâ, nor can he know Him.

The valuable thing is the ma’rifa, the knowledge, which ensues

after eliminating polytheism and embracing tawhîd. Its sign is to

believe in prophets (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and their books and to

follow them. This is the only way of being drawn towards Allâhu

ta’âlâ. The merit of prostrating oneself was naturally given to

Satan, but he refused to prostrate in a manner unsuitable for his

nafs. Ancient Greek philosophers became disbelievers because

they wanted to approach Allâhu ta’âlâ not by following prophets

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) but by their own reasons and nafses. Muslims,

- 70 -

to approach Allâhu ta’âlâ, adapt themselves to Islam, thus their

hearts get filled with spiritual light. The attribute ‘Jamâl’ (Beauty)

of Allâhu ta’âlâ manifests itself to their spirits. Polytheists, to

approach Allâhu ta’âlâ, follow not the Prophet or Islam but their

nafses, their defective minds and bid’as, and thus their hearts

get darkened and their spirits get obscured. Allâhu ta’âlâ, at the

end of this âyat kerîma, states that they lie in their statement,

“We worship idols so that they shall intercede for us.” As it is

seen, it is very unjust to take the 25th âyat kerîma of Sûrat al-

Luqmân, which says, “If you ask disbelievers, ‘Who created

the earth and the skies?’ they will say, ‘certainly Allâhu

ta’âlâ created them,’ ” and the 87th âyat kerîma of Sûrat az-

Zukhruf, which says, “If you ask those who worship things

other than Allâhu ta’âlâ, ‘Who created these?’ they will say,

‘Certainly Allâhu ta’âlâ created them,’ ” as documents and to

say, “Polytheists, too, knew that the Creator was Allah alone.

They worshipped idols so that they would intercede for them on

the Day of Judgement. For this reason they became polytheists

and disbelievers.”[1]

We, Muslims, do not worship prophets (’alaihi ’s-salâm) or

Awliyâ’ (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) and say that they are not

companions or partners of Allâhu ta’âlâ. We believe that they

were creatures and human beings and that they are not worth

worshipping. We believe that they are the beloved slaves of

Allâhu ta’âlâ, and He will pity His slaves for the sake of His

beloved ones. Allâhu ta’âlâ alone creates loss and profit. He

alone is worth worshipping. We say that He pities His slaves for

the sake of His beloved ones. As for polytheists; though they,

owing to the knowledge inherent in their creation, say that their

idols are not creative, and because they have not developed

this latent knowledge by following prophets (’alaihimu ’s-salâm),

believe that their idols are worth worshipping, and so they

worship them. Because they say idols are worth worshipping,

they become polytheists. Otherwise, they would not become

[1] Jamîl Sidqî az-Zahâwî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) an ’âlim of Iraq, in his

work Al-fajr as-Sâdiq fi ’r-raddi ’ala ’l-munkiri ’t-tawassuli wa ’lkarâmati

wa ’l-hawâriq, [published in Egypt in 1323 (1905 A.D.),

photographic second reproduction, Istanbul, 1396 (1976 A.D.)],

explained this âyat-i kerîma and proved that it had been misinterpreted.

Jamîl Sidqî taught ’ilm al-kalâm at the University of Istanbul. He died in

1355 (1936 A.D.). The 1956 edition of Al-munjid gives a picture of him.

- 71 -

polytheists for saying that they wanted intercession. As it is

seen, likening the Ahl as-Sunna to idolatrous disbelievers is

completely wrong. All these âyats were sent for idolatrous

disbelievers and polytheists. The book Kashf ash-shubuhât

gives wrong meanings to the âyats, uses sophism and says that

the Muslims of the Ahl as-Sunna are polytheists. It also

recommends that non-Wahhâbite Muslims should be killed and

that their property should be confiscated.

Two hadîths reported by ’Abdullah ibn ’Umar (radiy-Allâhu

’anhumâ) state: “They have left the right course. They have

imputed to Muslims the [meanings of the] âyats that

descended for disbelievers,” and “Of all my fears on behalf

of the Umma, the most horrible thing is their interpretation

of Qur’ân al-kerîm according to their own opinions and

their fallacious translations.” These two hadîths foretold that

the lâ-madhhabî would appear and by misinterpreting the âyats

that had descended for disbelievers they would use them

against the Muslims.

Another person who realized that Muhammad ibn ’Abd al-

Wahhâb had wrong ideas and would be harmful later on and

who gave advice to him was Shaikh Muhammad ibn Sulaimân

al-Madanî (d. in Medina in 1194/1780, rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ),

one of the great ’ulamâ’ of Medina. He was a Shâfi’î scholar of

fiqh and wrote many books. His annotation on Ibn Hajar al-

Makkî’s (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) At-tuhfat al-muhtâj, a

commentary to the book Minhâj, has gained great fame. In his

two-volume book, which is entitled Al-fatâwâ, he says, “O

Muhammad ibn ’Abd al-Wahhâb! Don’t slander Muslims! I

advice you for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s sake. Yes, if someone says that

someone other than Allâhu ta’âlâ creates actions, tell him the

truth! But those who cling to causes (wasîla) and who believe

that both causes and the effective power in them are created by

Allâhu ta’âlâ cannot be called disbelievers. You are a Muslim,

too. It would be more correct to call one Muslim a ‘heretic’ than

calling all Muslims as such. He who leaves the community is

more likely to go astray. The 114th âyat kerîma of Sûrat an-

Nisâ’ proves my word right: ‘If a person who, after learning

the way to guidance, opposes the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm)

and deviates from the Believers’ beliefs and ’ibâdât, in the

next world We shall resurrect him in disbelief and

apostasy, with which he has been so intimate, and We shall

- 72 -

hurl him into Hell.’ ”

Though Wahhâbîs have innumerable wrong tenets, they are

based on three principles:

1— They say that a’mâl or ’ibâdât are included in îmân and

that he who does not perform a fard though he believes that it is

fard, for example, salât because of laziness or zakât because of

stinginess, becomes a disbeliever and he must be killed and his

possessions must be distributed among Wahhâbîs.

Ash-Shihristânî states: “The ’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-Sunna

have unanimously said that ’ibâdât are not included in îmân.

One who, though he believes it to be a fard, does not perform a

fard because of laziness does not become a disbeliever. There

has not been unanimity concerning those who do not perform

salât; according to Hanbalî Madhhab, one who does not

perform salât because of laziness becomes a disbeliever.”[1]

[Thenâ-ullah Pâni-pûtî ‘rahmatullâhi aleyh’ states at the

beginning of his book Mâ-lâ budda, “A Muslim does not

become a disbeliever by committing a grave sin. If he is put into

Hell, he will be taken out of Hell sooner or later and will be put

into Paradise. He will stay eternally in Paradise.” This book is in

Persian and was printed in Delhi in 1376 [1956 A.D.] and was

reproduced by Hakîkat Kitâbevi in Istanbul in 1410 [1990 A.D.].

In Hanbali Madhhab, it was said that only he who did not

perform salât would become a disbeliever. The same was not

said for other kinds of ’ibâdât. Therefore, it would be wrong to

consider Wahhâbîs as Hanbalî in this respect. As explained

above, those who do not belong to the Ahl as-Sunna cannot be

Hanbalî, either.[2] Those who do not belong to any of the four

Madhhabs do not belong to the Ahl as-Sunna.

2— They say that one who asks for shafâ’a from the souls of

prophets (’alaihimu ’s-salâm) or Awliyâ’ (rahimahum-Allâhu

ta’âlâ) or who visits their tombs and prays while considering

them mediators becomes a disbeliever. They also believe that

the dead do not have any sense.

If a person who talked to a dead person in a grave had been

a disbeliever, our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam), great

’ulamâ’ and the Awliyâ’ would not have prayed in this manner. It

[1] Al-milal wa ’n-nihal (Turkish), p. 63, Cairo, 1070 A.H.

[2] See pp. 18 and 31 above. See also our Advice for the Muslim for

details on the same subject.

- 73 -

was our Prophet’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) habit to visit the

Bakî Cemetery in Medina and the martyrs of Uhud. In fact, it is

written on the 485th page of the Wahhâbite book Fath al-majîd

that he greeted and talked to them.

Our Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) always said in his

prayers, “Allâhumma innî as-aluka bi-haqqi ’s-sâ’ilîna

’alaika,” (O my Allâhu ta’âlâ! I ask Thee for the sake of those

people whom Thou hast given whatever they asked) and

recommended to pray so. When he interred Fâtima, the mother

of Hadrat ’Alî (radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ), with his own blessed

hands, he said, “Ighfir li-ummî Fâtimata binti Asad wa wassi’

’alaihâ madkhalahâ bi-haqqi nabiyyika wa ’l-anbiyâ’

illadhîna min qablî innaka arhamu ’r-râhimîn.” (O Allâhu

ta’âlâ! Forgive Mother Fâtimat binti Asad, her sins! Widen the

place she is in! Accept this prayer of mine for the right [love] of

Thy Prophet and of the prophets who came before me! Thou art

the Most Merciful of the merciful!) In a hadîth sherîf reported by

’Uthmân ibn Hunaif (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) one of the greatest of the

Ansâr, it is told how the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) ordered a

blind man, who asked him to pray for his healing, to perform an

ablution and a salât of two rak’as and then to say, “Allâhumma

innî as’aluka wa atawajjahu ilaika bi-nabiyyika Muhammadi

’n-nabiyyi ’r-Rahma, yâ Muhammad innî atawajjahu bika ilâ

Rabbî fî hâjatî hâdhihî li-takdiya lî, Allâhumma shaffi’hu

fiyya.” In this prayer the blind man was commanded to have

recourse to Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm) as a mediator so that

his prayer would be accepted. The Sahâbat al-kirâm often

recited this prayer, which is quoted in the second volume of

Ashi’at al-lama’ât and also in Al-hisn al-hasîn with its

references and, in its explanation, interpretation as, “I turn

towards Thee through Thine Prophet.”

These prayers show that it is permissible to put those whom

Allâhu ta’âlâ loves as mediators and to pray to Him by saying

“for their sake.”

Shaikh ’Alî Mahfûz, who died in 1361 (1942 A.D.), one of the

great ’ulamâ’ of Jâmi’ al-Azhar, praises Ibn Taimiyya and

’Abduh very much in his book Al-ibdâ’. Nevertheless, he says

in the two hundred and thirteenth page of the same book: “It is

not right to say that the great Awliyâ’ (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ)

dispose worldly affairs after death, such as curing the ill,

rescuing those who are about to be drowned, helping those

- 74 -

who are against the enemy and having lost things found. It is

wrong to say that, because the Awliyâ are very great, Allâhu

ta’âlâ has left these tasks to them or they do what they wish or

that one who clings to them will not go wrong. But whether they

are alive or dead, Allâhu ta’âlâ blesses, among His Awliyâ’, the

ones whom He wills, and, through their karâmât, He cures the

ill, rescues those who are about to be drowned, helps those

who are fighting an enemy and recovers lost things. This is

logical. Also Qur’ân al-kerîm reveals these facts.”[1]

’Abd al-Ghanî an-Nablusî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) writes: “A

hadîth qudsî, which al-Bukhârî reported from Abû Huraira

(radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh), says: Allâhu ta’âlâ declared: ‘My

slaves cannot approach Me through anything as close as

they approach me by means of the fard. If My slaves do the

supererogatory ’ibâdât, I like them so much that they hear

with Me, see with Me, hold everything with Me, walk with

Me, and I give them whatever they ask of Me. If they trust in

Me, I protect them.’ ” The supererogatory ’ibâdât mentioned

here are, [as clearly written in Marâq al-falâh and at-Tahtâwî’s

annotation. Please see page 428,] the sunna and

supererogatory ’ibâdât done by those who do the ’ibâdât which

are fard. This hadîth sherîf shows that one who, after doing the

’ibâdât which are fard, does the supererogatory worships will

earn Allâhu ta’âlâ’s love and his prayers will be accepted.”[2]

Whether alive or dead, when such people pray for others,

people for whom they pray get what they wish. Such people

hear even when they are dead. As they did not when they were

alive, they do not turn down those who ask empty-handed, and

they pray for them. For this reason, a hadîth sherîf states:

“When you are in trouble in your affairs, ask for help from

those who are in graves!” The meaning of this hadîth sherîf is

clear, and its ta’wîl (interpretation in a different way) is not

permitted. Alûsî’s ta’wîl is false.

In actual fact, “Muslims are still Muslims when they are dead

just as is the case when they are asleep. Prophets are still

[1] Shaikh ’Alî Mahfûz, Al-ibdâ’, p. 213, Cairo, 1375 (1956 A.D.); ’Abdullah

ad-Dasûqî and Yûsuf ad-Dajwî, professors at Jâmî’ al-Azhar, wrote

eulogies praising the book at the end of Al-ibdâ’.

[2] ’Abd al-Ghanî an-Nabulusî, Al-hadîqat an-nadiyya, p. 182, Istanbul,


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prophets (’alaihi ’s-salâm) after death just as is the case when

they are asleep; for, it is the soul who is a Muslim or a prophet.

When a man dies, his soul does not change. This fact is written

in the book ’Umdat al-’aqâ’id by Imâm ’Abdullah an-Nasafî

[printed in London in 1259 (1843 A.D.)]. Likewise, Awliyâ’ are

still Awliyâ’ (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) when they are dead just

as they are when asleep. He who does not believe this is

ignorant and stubborn. I have proven in another book that the

Awliyâ’ possess karâmât after they die, too.”[1] The Hanafî

scholar Ahmad ibn Sayyid Muhammad al-Makkî al-Hamawî and

the Shâfi’î scholars Ahmad ibn Ahmad as-Sujâ’î and

Muhammad ash-Shawbarî al-Misrî wrote booklets in which they

proved with evidence that Awliyâ’ possessed karâmât, that their

karâmât continued after their death, and that tawassul or

istighâtha [see below] at their graves was permitted (jâ’iz).[2]

Muhammad Hâdimî Efendi (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) of Konya

(d. 1176/1762 in Konya) wrote: “The Karâmât of Awliyâ’ are

true. A Walî is a Muslim who is al-’ârifu bi’llâh (one who knows

Allâhu ta’âlâ and His Attributes as much as is possible). He

performs many ’ibâdât and tâ’at. He very carefully avoids sins

and the sensual desires of his nafs. Things created by Allâhu

ta’âlâ outside of His Law of Causation and scientific laws are

called ‘khâriq-ul ’âda’ (extraordinary things), which are of eight

kinds: mu’jiza, karâma, i’âna, ihâna, sihr, ibtilâ, isâbat al-ayn

(effect caused by the evil eye) and irhâs. Karâma is an

extraordinary occurrence that happens through a devoted

Believer who is al-’ârifu bi’llâh. He is a Walî, not a prophet. Abû

Is’hâq Ibrâhîm al-Isfarâinî, a Shâfi’î scholar, denied some of the

karâma, and all Mu’tazila denied karâma. They said that it can

be confused with mu’jiza and, therefore, belief in prophets might

become difficult. However, a Walî through whom a karâma

happened does not claim prophethood, nor does he want a

karâma to happen. It is permissible to pray to Allâhu ta’âlâ

through prophets and Awliyâ’ even after their death because

their mu’jiza and karâma do not cease after death. This type of

prayer is called ‘tawassul’ or ‘istighâtha.’ Ar-Ramlî, too, said

[1] Al-hadîqa an-nadiyya, p. 290.

[2] These three booklets were published together with Ahmad Zainî

Dahlân’s (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’aleyh) Ad-durar as-saniyya fi ’r-raddi

’alâ ’l-Wahhâbiyya in Cairo in 1319 (1901 A.D.); photographic

reproduction, Istanbul, 1396 (1976 A.D.).

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the same. Al-Imâm al-Haramain said, ‘Only the Shî’ites deny

the continuity of karâma after death.’ ’Alî Ajhurî, a prominent

Mâlikî scholar of Egypt, said, ‘The Walî, when he is alive, is like

a sword in its sheath. After his death, his influence becomes

stronger like that of a sword out of its sheath.’ This statement is

also quoted by Abû ’Alî Sanjî in his book Nûr al-hidâya. It is

certified in the light of the Book (Qur’ân al-kerîm), the Sunna

and ijmâ’ al-Umma that karâma is true. Hundreds of thousands

of the karâmât of the Awliyâ’ have been reported in many

valuable books.”[1] The translation from the book Barîqa ends


And, a sahîh hadîth conveyed by the hadîth scholars Ibn

Hudhaima, ad-Dâra Qutnî and at-Tabarânî on the authority of

’Abdullah ibn ’Umar (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ anhumâ) states: “It has

become wâjib for me to intercede for those who will visit

my grave.” Imâm al-Manâwî, too, quoted this hadîth in Kunûz

ad-daqâ’iq. In addition, he wrote the hadîth ash-sherîf, “After

my death, visiting my shrine is like visiting me when I am

alive,” from Ibn Hibbân; and the hadîth ash-sherîf, “I will

intercede for the one who visits my grave,” from at-

Tabarânî. The following two hadîths, which are marfû’, the first

one quoted by Imâm al-Bazzâr and the second one written in

the Sahîh of Muslim and both on the authority of ’Abdullâh ibn

’Umar (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ anhumâ), are known by almost every

Muslim: “It has become halâl for me to intercede for those

who will visit by grave’; ‘On the Day of Judgement I shall

intercede for those who come to al-Madînat al-munawwara

to visit my grave.”[2]

It is great news that is quoted in the hadîth ash-sherîf, “A

person who performs hajj and then visits my grave will

have visited me when I was alive,” which was quoted by at-

Tabarânî, ad-dâra Qutnî and [’Abd ar-Rahmân] Ibn al-Jawzî.

The hadîth ash-sherîf, “A person who does not visit me after

carrying out the hajj will have hurt me,” which ad-Dâra Qutnî

quotes, alludes to those who neglect to visit the Prophet’s

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) grave after hajj though they do not have an

excuse (not to do so).

’Abd al-’Azîz, Rector of the Islamic University of al-Madînat

[1] Berîqâ, p. 269.

[2] Mir’ât al-Madîna (Mir’ât al-Haramain) p. 106.

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al-munawwara, wrote in his Tahqîq wa Îdhâh, “None of the

[above] hadîths [recommending the visit] has any support or

document. Shaikh al-Islâm Ibn Taimiyya said that all of them

were mawdû’.” However, their sanads (documents) are written

in detail in the eighth volume of az-Zarkânî’s commentary to Almawâhib

and at the end of the fourth volume of as-Samûdî’s

Wafâ’ al-wafâ’. In these books, it is also written that these

hadîths were hasan[1] and that Ibn Taimiyya’s comment was

groundless. The rector and instructors of Medina university try

to calumniate the writings of the ’ulamâ’ of the Ahl as-Sunna

and in their place spread the Wahhâbî tenets all over the world

with their books. In order to convince Muslim and non-Muslim

nations that they are true Muslims, they follow a new policy;

they have founded an Islamic centre called Râbitat al-Âlam al-

Islâmî in Mekka and have gathered ignorant and bribable men

with religious education that they have chosen from every

country and to whom they pay salaries, which amount to

hundreds of gold coins. These ignorant men with religious

posts, having no knowledge about the books of the scholars of

the Ahl as-Sunna, are used like puppets. From this centre they

disseminate their tenets, which they call “fatwâs of world

Muslim unity,” to the entire world. In the fallacious fatwâ

issued during the Ramadân of 1395 (1975 A.D.), they said, “It is

fard for women to perform the salât of Jum’a. The Khutba of

Jum’a and ’Iyd can be delivered in the native language of every

country.” A heretic named Sabri from among the followers of

Maudoodi, a member of this center of fitna and fasâd in Mekka,

immediately took that fatwâ to India, whereupon salaried,

wealthy, and ignorant men being there forced women into

mosques, and initiated the khutba to be read in various

languages. To prevent this movement, scholars of the Ahl as-

Sunna and true men of religion in India (rahimahum-Allahu

ta’âlâ) prepared fatwâs from valuable sources and spread them.

Wahhâbis could not refute these fatwâs —the truth. Hundreds

of men with religious educations from Kerala, in southern India,

realizing that they had been deceived, repented and returned to

the line of the Ahl as-Sunna. Four of those fatwâs which are

based on reliable sources, were printed in offset process and

[1] Please see the sixth chapter in the second fascicle of Endless Bliss for

kinds of hadîth.

- 78 -

posted to all Islamic countries. Real men of religious authority in

every country call the attention of Muslims to, and try to

extinguish, the agitation which divides Islam from within. Thanks

to Allâhu ta’âlâ, the innocent and vigilant youth in every corner

of the world can distinguish the truth from falsehood.

While explaining the subjects concerning the khutba of

Jum’a, takbîr iftitâh and prayers in salât, Ibn ’Âbidîn (rahimah-

Allâhu ta’âlâ) wrote in his work Radd al-muhtâr: “Delivering the

khutba in a language other than Arabic would be like saying the

takbîr iftitâh (“Allâhu akbar”) in another language when

beginning salât. The takbîr iftitâh is like the dhikrs of salât, and it

is makrûh tahrîma to recite the dhikrs and prayers of salât in a

language other than Arabic, as was forbidden by Hadrat ’Umar

(radiy-Allâhu ’anh).” In the chapter on the wâjibs of salât, he

wrote: “To commit a makrûh tahrîma is a minor sin. If one

continues to commit it, one loses one’s ’adâla.”[1] It is written in

at-Tahtâwî that a person who continually commits a minor sin

becomes a fâsiq and that one should go to another mosque in

order not to perform salât [in congregation] behind an imâm

who is a fâsiq or a committer of bid’a. Because it was a makrûh

and a bid’a, which is a grave sin, to read the whole or a part of

the khutba in another language, the as-Sahâbat al-kirâm and

the Tâbi’ûn (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) always delivered the

entire khutba in Arabic in Asia and Africa, even though the

listeners had no knowledge of Arabic and could not understand

the khutba. Though religious knowledge had not spread and

had to be taught to them, they read the entire khutba in Arabic.

And it was for this reason that for six hundred years the

Ottoman Shaikh al-Islâms and world-wide famous great Muslim

scholars, though they seriously wanted the khutba to be read in

Turkish so that the congregation could understand its contents,

could not permit it —for they knew it was not permissible for the

khutba to be delivered in Turkish.

A hadîth sherîf, reported by Imâm al-Bayhakî on the

authority of Abû Huraira (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) states: “When a

person greets me, Allâhu ta’âlâ gives my soul to my body

and I hear his greeting.” Relying on this hadîth sherîf, Imâm

al-Bayhakî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) said that prophets (’alaihi ’s-

[1] ‘Justness’; he will become unreliable on religious matters; he will not be

accepted as a witness.

- 79 -

salâm) were alive in their graves in a life unknown to us.

And ’Abdal-’Azîz ibn ’Abdullah of Medina quotes this hadîth

on the 66th page of his Al-hajj wa ’l-umra and comments that it

expresses the death of the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm). Yet, on

the same page, he states that he is alive in his grave in a life

unknown to us. His statements contradict each other. In actual

fact, this hadîth sherîf indicates that his blessed soul is given to

his body and he responds to greetings. Furthermore, the two

hadîths quoted on the 73rd page of the same book report the

command that one should say, “As-salâmu ’alaikum ahl addiyâri

min al-Mu’minîn,” while visiting graves. The hadîths

order us to greet the graves of all Muslims. Someone who hears

can be greeted or spoken to; although the la-madhhabî quote

these hadîths, they claim that the dead cannot hear, and they

say ‘polytheist’ about those who believe that the dead can hear.

They misinterpret âyats and hadîths!

There are many hadîths revealing that Rasûlullah (sall-

Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) is alive in his tomb in an unknown life.

There being so many of them signifies that they are sound. Of

these hadîths, the following two are written in six famous books

of hadîths: “I will hear the salawât recited at my grave, I will

be informed of the salawât recited at a distance”; “If a

person recites salawât at my grave, Allâhu ta’âlâ sends an

angel and informs me of this salawât. I will intercede for

him on the Day of Judgement.”

If a Muslim goes to the grave of a dead Muslim whom he

knew when he was alive and greets him the dead Muslim will

recognize him and reply to him. A hadîth sherîf reported by Ibn

Abî’d-dunyâ declares that a dead Muslim recognizes and

answers the one who greets him and becomes happy. If a

person greets dead people whom he did not know, they

become pleased and acknowledge the greeting (salâm). While

good Muslims and martyrs (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) recognize

and answer those who greet them, is it possible that Rasûlullah

(sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) will not? As the sun in the sky

illuminates the entire world, so he answers all simultaneous

greetings simultaneously.

A hadîth sherîf says, “After my death, I will hear as I do

when I am alive.” Another hadîth sherîf reported by Abu Ya’lâ

says, “Prophets (’alaihimu ’s-salâm) are alive in their graves.

They perform salât.” Ibrâhîm ibn Bishar and Sayyid Ahmad ar-

80 -

Rifâ’î and many other Awliyâ (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) said

that they had heard a reply after they had greeted Rasûlullah

(sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam).

The great Muslim scholar Hadrat Jalâl ad-dîn as-Suyûtî

wrote the book Sharaf al-muhkam as an answer to the

question asked of him: “Is it true that Sayyid Ahmad ar-Rifâ’î

kissed Rasûlullah’s blessed hand?” In this book, he proved with

reasonable and traditional evidence that Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam) was alive in his grave in an incomprehensible

life and that he heard and answered greetings. He also

explained in this book that on the Mi’râj Night Rasûlullah saw

Mûsâ (’alaihi ’s-salâm) performing salât in his grave.

A hadîth sherîf, which our mother ’Â’ishat as-Siddîqa (radiy-

Allâhu ’anhâ) related, says, “I suffer the pain of the

poisonous meat I ate at Khaibar. Because of that poison

my aorta almost fails to function now.” This hadîth sherîf

shows that, in addition to prophethood, Allâhu ta’âlâ has given

the status of martyrdom to Muhammad, the Highest of Mankind

(’alaihi ’s-salâm). Allâhu ta’âlâ declares in the 169th âyat of

Sûrat âl ’Imrân: “Never regard those who have been killed in

the way of Allâhu ta’âlâ as dead! They are alive in His view.

They are nourished.” No doubt this great Prophet (’alaihi ’ssalâm),

who has been poisoned in the way of Allâhu ta’âlâ, is

the highest of those honored with the status defined in this âyat


A hadîth sherîf reported by Ibn Hibbân says, “Prophets’

(’alaihimu-’s-salâm) blessed bodies never rot. If a Muslim

recites the salawât for me, an angel conveys that salawât to

me and says, ‘So and so’s son so and so has recited a

salawât and greeted you.’ ”

A hadîth sherîf reported by Ibn Mâja says, “On Fridays

recite the salawât for me repeatedly! The salawât will be

communicated to me as soon as it is recited.” Abu ’d-dardâ’

(radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh), one of those who were in the

company of the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) at that moment,

asked, “Will it be communicated to you after death, too?” The

Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) said, “Yes, I will be informed of it

after my death, too, for, it is harâm for the earth to

decompose prophets (’alaihi ’s-salâm). They are alive after

death, and they are nourished.” [This hadîth-i sherîf is written

also in the final section of the book Mawtâ-wal-qubûr, by

- 81 -

Thenâ-ullâhi Pâni-pûtî. This book is in Persian and was printed

in Delhi in 1310 [1892 A.D.] and reproduced by Hakîkat Kitâbevi

in Istanbul in 1990].

Hadrat ’Umar (radiy-Allâhu ’anh), after the conquest of Quds

(Jerusalem), went into the Prophet’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) Blessed

Grave (al-Qabr as-Sa’âda) and visited his grave and greeted

him. Hadrat ’Umar ibn Abd al-’Azîz, who was a great Walî,

usually sent officials from Damascus to Medina and had them

recite a salawât at the Blessed Grave and greet him. Hadrat

’Abdullah ibn ’Umar, after returning from each journey, would go

directly to the Hujrat as-Sa’âda; first he would visit Rasûlullah

(’alaihi ’s-salâm), then Abu Bakr as-Siddîq (radiy-Allâhu ’anh)

and then his father and greet them. Imâm Nâfi’ said, “More than

a hundred times I saw Hadrat ’Abdullah ibn ’Umar go into the

Blessed Grave and say, ‘As-salâmu ’alaika yâ Rasûl-Allah!’ One

day Hadrat ’Alî (radiy-Allâhu ’anh) went into Masjid ash-Sherîf

and he wept when he saw the grave of Hadrat Fâtima (radiy-

Allâhu ’anh) and he wept all the more when he went to the

Hujrat as-Sa’âda. Then, saying, ‘As-salâmu ’alaika yâ Rasûl-

Allah’ and ‘As-sâlâmu ’alaikumâ, O Two Brothers of Mine!’ he

greeted the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm), Hadrat Abû Bakr and

Hadrat ’Umar (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ anhumâ).”

According to al-Imâm al-a’zam Abu Hanîfa (rahmatullâhi

’aleyh), one should perform hajj first and then go to al-Madînat

al-munawwara and visit Rasûlullah (’alaihi ’s-salâm). The same

is written in the fatwâ of Abu ’l-Laith as-Samarqandî.

Qâdî ’Iyâd, author of the book Shifâ’; Imâm an-Nawawî, a

Shâfi’î ’âlim; and Ibn Humâm, a Hanafî ’âlim (rahimahum-Allâhu

ta’âlâ), said that there had been ijmâ’ al-Umma on it being

necessary to visit the Blessed Grave. Some ’âlims said that it is

wâjib.’ As a matter of fact, it is sunnat to visit graves, a fact

which is also written in the Wahhâbite book Fat’h al-majîd.

The 63rd âyat al-kerîma of Sûrat an-Nisâ’ purports: “If they,

after tormenting their nafses, come to you (My Messenger)

and beg for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s (My) pardon, and if My

Messenger apologizes on behalf of them, they will certainly

find Allâhu ta’âlâ as the Receiver of Repentance and

Compassionate.” This âyat kerîma indicates that Rasûlullah

(sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) will intercede and his intercession

(shafâ’a) will be accepted. Also, it commands us to visit his

blessed grave and to ask for his intercession by coming from

- 82 -

distant places.

A hadîth sherîf states: “It is suitable to set off on a long

journey only for visiting three mosques.” This hadîth points

out that it is thawâb to go on a long journey for the purpose of

visiting Masjid al-Harâm in Mekka, Masjid an-Nabî in Medina

and the Masjid al-Aqsâ in Jerusalem. For this reason, those

who go for hajj but do not visit the Blessed Grave in Masjid an-

Nabî will be deprived of this reward.

Imâm Mâlik (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh) said that it is makrûh for

those who visit the Blessed Shrine to stay too long near the

Hujrat as-Sa’âda. Imâm Zain al-’Âbidîn (rahmatullâhi ’aleyh),

while visiting, stood near the pillar which stood in the direction

of the Rawdat al-Mutahhara and he approached no further.

Until Hadrat ’Âisha (radiy-Allâhu ’anhâ) died, the visit was done

by standing, facing the qibla, at the outer side of the door of the

Hujrat as-Sa’âda.

A hadîth sherîf says, “Do not make my grave a [place of]

festival.” Hadrat ’Abd al-’Azîm al-Munzirî, a hadîth scholar,

explained this hadîth sherîf as: “Do not consider it enough to

visit my grave only once a year, like on ’Iyd days. Try to visit me

frequently!” And the hadîth ash-sherîf, “Do not make a

cemetery of your houses,” means that we should not make

our houses look like a cemetery by not performing salât. Thus it

is seen that Hadrat al-Munzirî’s explanation is correct. As a

matter of fact, it is not permitted to perform salât in a cemetery.

It was said that this hadîth sherîf might come to mean, “Do not

fix a certain day like a feast for visiting my shrine?” Jews and

Christians, during their visit to their prophets, habitually

assembled together, played instruments, sang songs and held

ceremonies. These hadîths imply that we should not behave

like them; that is, we should not make merry with forbidden

things on feast days, nor play reeds or drums or gather to hold

ceremonies during our visit. We should visit and greet, pray and

then leave silently without staying long.

Al-Imâm al-a’zam Abu Hanîfa (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) said

that visiting the Blessed Grave is a most valuable sunna, and

there are some scholars who said that it is wâjib. For this

reason, visiting the Blessed Grave is allowed as a vow in the

Shâfi’î Madhhab.

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In fact, “Allâhu ta’âlâ, in His Word, ‘If I had not created you,

I would not have created anything!’[1] points out that

Muhammad (‘alaihi ’s-salâm) is the Habîb-Allah (Allâhu ta’âlâ’s

Most Beloved). Even an ordinary person will not refuse

something asked for the sake of his beloved. It is easy to have

a lover do something for the sake of his beloved. If a person

says, ‘O my Allâhu ta’âlâ! For the sake of Thine Muhammad

(’alaihi ’s-salâm), I ask of Thee,’ this wish of his will not be

refused. Trivial worldly affairs, however, are not worth putting

Rasûlullah’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) sake as a


Al-Imâm al-a’zam Abu Hanîfa (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) said, “I

was in Medina. Shaikh Ayyûb as-Sahtiânî, one of the sulahâ’,

went into Masjîd ash-Sherîf. I followed him. Hadrat Shaikh

faced the Blessed Grave and stood with his back to the qibla.

Then he went out.” Hadrat Ibn Jamâ’a wrote in his book Almansak

al-kabîr, “While visiting, after performing a salât of two

rak’as and praying near the minbar (pulpit), you should come to

the qibla side of the Hujrat as-Sa’âda and, with the Prophet’s

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) blessed head on your left, you should stay two

metres away from the wall of the al-Marqad ash-Sherîf (the

Prophet’s shrine), then, leaving the qibla wall behind and

turning slowly till you face the Muwâjahat as-Sa’âda, you

should greet him. This is so in all the Madhhabs.”

’Abd al-Ghanî an-Nabulusî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ), while

explaining the twenty-third of the “Disasters incurred by the

tongue,” writes: “It is makrûh tahrîma to say, while praying, ‘for

the right of the prophets’ or ‘for the right of [such and such living

or dead] Walî’ or to ask Allâhu ta’âlâ for something by saying

so, for, it has been said that no creature has any rights on

Allâhu ta’âlâ; that is, he does not have to grant anyone’s wish.

This is true, yet He promised His beloved slaves and

recognized a right for them on Himself; that is, He will accept

their wish. He declared in Qur’ân al-kerîm that He placed a right

of His slaves on Himself, for example, ‘It has become a right

on Us to help Believers.’ ”[1] It is declared in Al-fatâwâ al-

[1] This hadîth qudsî is quoted also in al-Imâm ar-Rabbanî’s (rahimah-

Allâhu ta’âlâ) Maktûbât, vol III, 122nd letter.

[2] Mir’ât al-Madîna, p. 1282.

[1] Al-hadîqa.

- 84 -

Bazzâziyya, “It is permitted to ask for something for the sake of

a prophet or a dead or living Walî by mentioning his name.” The

commentary on Shir’a states: “One must pray [to Allâhu ta’âlâ]

by making intermediaries of His prophets (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and

sâlih Believers. This is also written in Al-hisn al-hasîn.” As it is

seen, Muslim scholars said that it is permissible to pray to

Allâhu ta’âlâ through the right and love which He has given to

His beloved ones. And no scholar said that it would be

polytheism to pray with the idea that men have rights on Allâhu

ta’âlâ. Only Wahhâbîs say so.

Though they praise Al-fatâwâ al-Bazzâziyya in the book

Fat’h al-majîd and put forward his fatwâs as documents, they

oppose him in this respect. Also Hâdimî, while explaining the

“Disasters caused by the tongue,” wrote: “ ‘For the right of Thy

Prophet or Walî’ means ‘his prophethood or wilâya is right.’ Our

Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm), too, with this intention said, ‘For the

right of Thy Prophet Muhammad,’ and, during the wars he

asked for Allâhu ta’âlâ’s help for the right of the poor among the

Muhâjirûn. Also there were many Muslim ’ulamâ’ who prayed,

‘For the sake of those people whom Thou hast given whatever

they asked from Thee,’ and, ‘For the right of Muhammad al-

Ghazâlî,’ and who wrote these prayers in their books.”[1] The

book Al-hisn al-hasîn is full of such prayers. The tafsîr Rûh albayân

says in an explanation of the eighteenth âyat of Sûrat al-

Mâida: A hadîth reported by ’Umar al-Fârûq (radiy-Allâhu ’anh)

states: “When Âdam (’alaihi ’s-salâm) made a mistake, he

said, ‘O my Rabb! Forgive me for the sake of Muhammad

(’alaihi ’s-salâm).’ And Allâhu ta’âlâ said, ‘I have not created

Muhammad yet. How do you know him?’ He said, ‘O my

Rabb! When Thou created me and gave me of Thine soul, I

looked up and saw the phrase “Lâ ilâha illa’llâh

Muhammadun Rasûlullâh” written on the skirts of the

’Arsh. Thou would only write the name of Thine most

beloved by Thine Name. Considering this, I knew that Thou

loved him very much.’ Upon this Allâhu ta’âlâ said, ‘O

Adam, you tell the truth. Of Mine creatures, he is the one I

love most; so I have forgiven you for his sake. If

Muhammad had not existed, I would not have created you.’

” This hadîth sherîf is quoted in Imâm al-Bayhakî’s Dalâ’il and

[1] Hâdimî, Berîqa, Istanbul, 1284.

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in Âlûsî’s Ghâliyya.

The Wahhâbî writes: “Imâm Zain al-’Âbidîn ’Alî (rahimah-

Allâhu ta’âlâ) saw a man praying by the Prophet’s (’alaihi ’ssalâm)

grave and interrupted him by telling him the hadîth,

‘Recite a salawât for me. Wherever you are, your greeting

will be communicated to me.’ ” It narrates the event

incorrectly and goes on, “Hence, it is forbidden to go near a

grave for praying and reciting salawât, which is similar to

making graves places of festival. It is forbidden for those who

go to perform salât in Masjîd an-Nabî to approach the tomb for

greeting. None of the Sahâba did so, and they prevented those

who wanted to do so. No other deed but the prayers and

greetings said by his Umma will be communicated to the

Prophet.”[2] He also writes that the Sa’ûdî government placed

soldiers near the Prophet’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) shrine in Masjid an-

Nabî to prevent Muslims from doing so.[3]

Hadrat Yûsuf an-Nabhânî refuted these lies at many places

in his book: “Imâm Zain al-’Âbidîn (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) did

not forbid visitation to the Blessed Grave of the Prophet (’alaihi

’s-salâm). But he forbade non-Islamic, disrespectful behaviour

during a visit. His grandson, Imâm Ja’far as-Sâdiq, used to visit

the Hujrat as-Sa’âda, and, standing near the pillar which stood

in the direction of the Rawdat al-Mutahhara, greet and say, ‘His

blessed head is on this side.’ ‘Do not make my grave [a place

of] festival’, means ‘Do not visit my grave on certain days like

feast days. Visit me usually.’ ”[1] “Abû ’Abdullah al-Qurtubî

writes in his At-tadhkira that the deeds of the Prophet’s (’alaihi

’s-salâm) Umma are communicated to him every morning and

every evening.” (pp. 88, 106) “Khalîfa Mansûr, during his visit to

[the shrine of] the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm), asked Imâm Mâlik,

‘Shall I face the tomb or the qibla?’ Imâm Mâlik (rahimah-Allâhu

ta’âlâ) said, ‘How could you turn your face away from

Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)? He is the cause of

your and your father Âdam’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) forgiveness!’ ”

(pp. 89, 116) “The hadîth ash-sherîf, ‘Visit graves!’ is a

command. If a harâm is committed during the visit, not the visit

[2] Fat’h al-Majîd, p. 259; see above p. 53 for this book.

[3] ibid, p. 234.

[1] Shawâhid al-haqq, p. 80. 3rd. ed., Cairo, 1385 /(1965 A.D.). The next

six quotations with page numbers refer to this book, too.

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itself, but the harâm should be forbidden.” (p. 92) “Imâm annawawî

says in his Adhkâr, ‘It is a sunna to visit frequently the

shrines of the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and of pious Muslims

and to stay for some time near such places of visitation.’ ” (p.98)

“Ibn Humâm, in his Fat’h al-qadîr, quotes the hadîth ash-sherîf

transmitted by ad-Dâra Qutnî and al-Bazzâr which says, ‘If

someone visits me [at my shrine] only with a view to visiting

me and not to do anything else, he will have the right to be

interceded for by me on the Day of Judgement.’ ” (p. 100)

“Allâhu ta’âlâ favoured the Awliyâ’ with karâmât. Their karâmât

are witnessed frequently even after their death. They are able

to be helpful after death, too. It is permitted to have them

intercede with Allâhu ta’âlâ. But one should ask help from them

in a manner compatible with Islam. It is not permitted to say, ‘I

will give that much... for you if you give me what I request,’ or ‘If

you cure my sick relative,’ which is often uttered by the ignorant.

However, this cannot be regarded as an act causing disbelief or

polytheism, for, even an utterly ignorant person will not expect a

Walî to create. He wants the Walî to be the cause in Allâhu

ta’âlâ’s creating. He thinks that the Walî is a human creature

whom Allâhu ta’âlâ loves, and says, ‘Please ask Allâhu ta’âlâ to

favour me with what I wish; He will not reject your prayer.’ As a

matter of fact, Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said,

‘There are many people who are considered low and

worthless but who are Allâhu ta’âlâ’s beloved slaves. When

they want to do something, Allâhu ta’âlâ certainly creates

it.’[1] Obeying such hadîths, Muslims ask the Awliyâ’ to

intercede. Imâm Ahmad, al-Imâm ash-Shâfi’î, Imâm Mâlik and

al-Imâm al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa (rahimahum-Allâhu ta’âlâ) said

that it is jâ’iz (possible, permissible) to attain baraka (blessing)

through the graves of the pious. Those who say that they are of

the Ahl as-Sunna or that they belong to one of the Madhhabs of

the Ahl as-Sunna must say as these imâms said. Otherwise, we

would rather take them as liars than Sunnîs.” (p. 118)

It is written in the subject concerning the performance of hajj

on behalf of someone else in the book Al-fatwâ al-Hindiyya, “It

is permissible to devote the thawâb of an ’ibâda to someone

else. Therefore, the thawâb of salât; fast; alms; pilgrimage;

recitation of Qur’ân al-kerîm; dhikr; visitation of the tombs of

[1] This hadîth is also quoted on the 381st page of the book Fat’h al-majîd.

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prophets, martyrs, Awliyâ’ and sâlih Muslims; giving a shroud

for a corpse; and the thawâb of all gifts and good deeds can be

devoted.” It is understood from this passage, too, that visiting

the graves of the Awliyâ’ does bring thawâb.

Documents of what has been written so far are written at

length in our Arabic and English books. Allâhu ta’âlâ orders

Muslims to unite. Therefore, all Muslims should learn the i’tiqâd

of the Ahl as-Sunnat wa ’l-Jamâ’a and come together on the

right way of Truth by believing as reported in the books of these

great scholars of the Ahl as-Sunna. The Prophet (sall-Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam) said that the only right way will be the way of

the Ahl as-Sunna. We must be very careful not to stray from the

unity of the Ahl as-Sunna and not to be taken in by the deceitful

writings of ignorant men with religious post who trade in

religious books and the writings of heretics who want to deceive

Muslims. Allâhu ta’âlâ declares clearly in the 114th âyat of Sûrat

an-Nisâ that those who dissent from the Muslims’ unity will go to

Hell. It is clear by documents and references that a person who

does not join in one of the four Madhhabs has separated

himself from the unity of the Ahl as-Sunna and that such a lâmadhhabî

person will become a heretic or a non-Muslim.[1]

The book At-tawassulu bi’n-Nabî wa jahâlat al-

Wahhâbiyyîn proves with examples and documents that Ibn

Taimiyya had departed from the way of the Ahl as-Sunnat

wa’l-Jamâ’a. Wahhâbîsm is a mixture of Ibni Taymiyya’s

heresies and the British spy Hempher’s lias and slanders.

3— Wahhâbîs say, “It causes kufr (disbelief) and shirk

(polytheism) to build a dome over a grave, to light oil-lamps for

those who worship and serve in shrines, and to vow alms for

the souls of the dead! The inhabitants of al-Haramain (Mekka

and Medina) have worshipped domes and walls up to now.”

Building a dome over a grave is harâm if it is for ostentation

or ornamentation. If it is for protecting the grave from

destruction, it is makrûh. If it is intended lest a thief or an animal

should break in, it is permissible. But it should not be made a

place for visiting; that is, one should not say that it should be

visited at certain times.

[1] Hâshiyatu Durr al-mukhtâr by the great scholar Ahmad at-Tahtâwî and

Al-basâ’ir ’ala ’l-munkiri ’t-tawassuli bi ’l-maqâbir, which was written

in Pakistan as a refutation to fat’h al-majîd and reprinted in Istanbul.

- 88 -

It is not makrûh to bury corpses in a building that has been

built before. The As-Sahâbat al-kirâm buried Rasûlullah (sall-

Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) and his two Khalîfas in a building.

None of them was against it. The Hadîth ash-sherîf states that

their unanimity cannot have been based on heresy. The great

Islamic scholar Ibn ’Âbidîn wrote: “Some scholars said that it

was makrûh to put a covering cloth, a skullcap or a turban over

the graves of pious Muslims or Awliyâ’. The book Al-fatâwâ alhujja

says that it is makrûh to cover a grave with cloth. But, to

us, it is not makrûh if it is intended to show everybody the

greatness of the one in the grave or to prevent him from being

insulted or to remind those who visit him to be respectful and

behave well. Acts that are not prohibited in the al-adillat ash-

Shar’iyya should be judged in view of the intention involved.

Yes, it is true that during the time of the Sahâbat al-kirâm

neither domes were built over graves nor sarcophagi or clothes

were put on graves. But none of them was against the interment

of Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) and the Shaikhain

(his two immediate Khalîfas) in a room. For this reason and for

carrying out the commands, ‘Do not step on graves!’ and ‘Do

not be disrespectful to your dead!’ and because they were

not prohibited, they cannot be bid’as only because they were

practices observed by later generations. All fiqh books state that

right after the farewell tawâf it is necessary to leave Masjid al-

Harâm as an act of respect towards the Ka’ba al-mu’azzama.

However, the as-Sahâbat al-kirâm did not have to do so

because they were always respectful towards the Ka’ba. But

since succeeding generations were unable to show due

reverence, our ’ulamâ’ declared that it was necessary to show

respect by leaving the Masjid by walking backwards. Thus, they

made it possible for us to be respectful like the as-Sahâbat alkirâm.

Likewise, it became permissible to cover the graves of

the sulahâ’ and Awliyâ with cloth or to build domes over them in

order to be respectful as the Sahâbat al-kirâm were. The great

scholar Hadrat ’Abd al-Ghanî an-Nabulusî explains this in detail

in his book Kashf an-nûr.”[1] In Arabia, shrines are called

[1] Ibn ’Âbidîn, Hâshiyatu Durr al-mukhtâr (Radd al-muhtâr) p. 232, vol.

V, Bulaq, 1272; Kashf an-nûr and Jalâl ad-dîn as-Suyûtî’s (rahimah-

Allâhu ta’âlâ) Tanwîr al-khalak fî imkâni ru’yati ’n-Nabî jihâran wa ’lmalak

were published together with the title Al-minhat al-wahbiyya,

Istanbul, 1393 (1973 A.D.).

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“mashhad.” In al-Madînat al-munawwara, there were many

mashhads in the Bakî’ Cemetery. The lâ-madhhabî destroyed

all of them. No Islamic scholar has ever said that it would be

polytheism or disbelief to build domed tombs or to visit tombs.

No one has ever been seen demolishing tombs.

Ibrâhîm al-Halabî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) wrote at the end of

the book Al-Halabî al-kabîr, “If a person decides that his land

will be a cemetery and if there is an empty space in it, it is

permissible for one to build a domed tomb in it with an intention

of burying a corpse. When there is no empty space left, this

tomb shall be demolished and graves shall be dug [in its place].

This is so because it is a place belonging to a waqf, devoted to

be a cemetery.” If building domed tombs had been known to be

polytheistic, or if domed tombs had been considered idols, it

would always have been necessary to demolish them.

The first of the Islamic tombs to exist on the earth was the

Hujrat al-mu’attara, where Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa

sallam) is buried. Our master Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa

sallam) passed away in the room belonging to his beloved wife,

our mother ’Â’isha (radiy-Allâhu ’anhâ), before noon on

Monday, the twelfth of Rabî al-awwal, 11 A.H. On Wednesday

night he was buried in that room. Hadrat Abû Bakr and Hadrat

’Umar (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anhumâ) were buried in the same

room. No Sahâbî was opposed to this. Now, this unanimity of

the Sahâbat al-kirâm is being opposed to. Even though denial

of ijmâ’ al-Umma by ministerpretation (ta’wîl) of a dubious

document (dalîl) does not result in disbelief, it causes bid’a.

Hadrat ’Â’isha’s (’radiy-Allâhu ’anhâ) room was three metres

high, somewhat more than three metres long and wide, and

was made of sun-dried bricks. It had two doors, one facing the

west and the other facing the north. Hadrat ’Umar (radiy-Allâhu

ta’âlâ ’anh), when he was Khalîfa, enclosed the Hujrat as-

Sa’âda with a low stone wall. ’Abdullah ibn Zubair (radiy-Allâhu

ta’alâ ’anhumâ), when he became Khalîfa, demolished this wall

and rebuilt it with black stones and had it plastered beautifully.

This wall was not roofed at the top and there was a door on the

north. When Hadrat Hasan (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh) passed

away in 49 A.H., his brother Hadrat Husain (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ

’anh), as required by his last will, had his corpse brought to the

door of the Hujrat as-Sa’âda and wanted to take his corpse into

the shrine to pray and ask for intercession; there were some

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people who opposed it, thinking that the corpse would be buried

in the shrine. Therefore, to prevent the clamour, the corpse was

not taken into the shrine and was buried at the Bakî’ Cemetery.

Lest such unsuitable events should happen again, the doors of

the room and the one outside were walled up.

Walîd, the sixth Umayyad Khalîfa, when he was the

governor of Medina, raised the wall round the room and had it

covered over with a small dome. When he became Khalîfa, he

ordered ’Umar ibn ’Abd al-’Azîz, his successor as the governor

of Medina, to enlarge the Masjid ash-Sherîf in 88 (707 A.D.);

hence, the room was surrounded with a second wall. This was

pentagonal in shape and roofed; and with no doors.[1]

The book Fat’h al-majîd says: “A person who intends to get

blessed (tabarruk) with a tree, stone, grave or the like becomes

a polytheist. Graves have been idolized by building domes over

them. The people of the Jâhiliyya Ages, too, worshipped pious

persons and statues. Today, all such and even more excessive

acts are committed at shrines and graves. To attempt to get

blessed with the graves of pious persons is similar to

worshipping the idol al-Lât.[1] These polytheists suppose that

Awliyâ’ hear and answer their prayers. They say that they

approach the dead by making vows and giving alms for the

graves. All these acts are major forms of polytheism. A

polytheist is still a polytheist even if he calls himself something

else. Praying to the dead respectfully and affectionately,

slaughtering animals, making vows and other similar acts are all

polytheistic whatever they call them. Today’s polytheists, using

the words ‘ta’zîm’ (respect, honour) and ‘tabarruk,’ say that

what they do is permissible. This supposition of theirs is


We have already translated the answers given by Muslim

scholars to such offensive lampoons against the Muslims of the

Ahl as-Sunna, and have written them down in our various

books. In the following, a passage from the first chapter of the

book Al-usûl al-arba’a fî tardîd al-Wahhâbiyya is translated to

show the vigilant reader that the Wahhâbîs have deceived

[1] See article 15 in Advice for the Muslim for more detail.

[1] One of the chief idols worshipped by the Arabs during the pre-Islamic

era called the Jâhiliyya Ages.

[2] Fat’h al-majîd, p. 133.

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themselves and will lead Muslims to ruination:

“Qur’ân al-kerîm, Hadîth ash-sherîf, statements and acts of

the Salaf as-sâlihîn, and most of the ’ulamâ’ document that it is

permissible to show ta’zîm to somebody other than Allâhu

ta’âlâ. The 32nd âyat of Sûrat al-Hajj states: ‘When one shows

honour (yu’azzim) to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s sha’â’ir, this behaviour

is out of the heart’s taqwâ.’ So it became wâjib to show

honour to Allâhu ta’âlâ’s sha’â’ir.’ ‘Sha’â’ir’ means ‘signs

and indications.’ Abdulhaqq ad-Dahlawî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ)

said, ‘Sha’â’ir is the plural of sha’îra, which means indication

(’alâma). Anything that reminds one of Allâhu ta’âlâ is a sha’îra

of Allâhu ta’âlâ.’ The 158th âyat of Sûrat al-Baqara says: ‘As-

Safâ and al-Marwa are among the sha’â’ir of Allâhu ta’âlâ.’

As understood from this âyat kerîma, not only the hills as-Safâ

and al-Marwa are the sha’â’ir of Allâhu ta’âlâ, but there are

other sha’â’ir as well. And not only the places called ’Arafât,

Muzdalifa and Minâ can be cited as sha’â’ir. Shâh Walî-Allâh

ad-Dahlawî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) says on the 69th page of his

work Hujjat Allâhi ’l-bâligha, ‘The greatest sha’âir of Allâhu

ta’âlâ are Qur’ân al-kerîm, Ka’bat al-mu’azzama, the Prophet

(’alaihi ’s-salâtu wa ’s-salâm) and the ritual salât.’ And on the

30th page of his book Altâf al-Quds, Shah Walî-Allâh ad-

Dahlawî (rahimah-Allâhu ta’âlâ) says, ‘To love the sha’â’ir of

Allâhu ta’âlâ means to love Qur’ân al-kerîm, the Prophet (’alaihi

’s-salâtu wa sallam) and the Ka’ba, or, to love anything that

reminds one of Allâhu ta’âlâ. To love the Awliyâ’ of Allâhu ta’âlâ

is the same.’[1] While the two hills near Masjid al-Harâm in

Mekka, namely as-Safâ and al-Marwa, between which the

Prophet Ismâ’îl’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) mother Hadrat Hajar walked,

are among the sha’â’ir of Allâhu ta’âlâ and can cause one to

remember that blessed mother, why should not the places

where the Prophet Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm), who is the

most superior of all creatures and the Beloved One of Allâhu

ta’âlâ, was born and brought up and the places where he

worshipped, migrated, performed salât and passed away and

[1] Because the Prophet said, ‘When Awliyâ’ are seen Allâhu ta’âlâ is

remembered,’ which is quoted in Ibn Abî Shaiba’s Musnad, in Irshâd

at-Tâlibîn, and in Kunûz ad-daqâiq, this hadîth sherîf shows that

Awliyâ’, too, are among the sha’âir. It is written in Jâmî’ ul-fatâwâ that

it is permissible to build domes over the graves of Awliyâ and ’Ulamâ in

order to show them honour.

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his blessed shrine and the places of his Âl (his blessed wives

and Ahl al-Bait) and companions be counted among the

sha’â’îr? Why do they destroy these places?

When Qur’ân al-kerîm is read attentively and objectively, it

will be easily seen that many âyats express ‘ta’zîm’ for

Rasûlullah (’alaihi ’s-salâm). The Sûrat al-Hujurât declares: ‘O

those who believe! Do not go ahead of Allâhu ta’âlâ and His

Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)! Fear Allâhu ta’âlâ! O

those who believe! Do not speak louder than the Prophet’s

voice! Do not call him as you call one another! The reward

for the deeds of those who do so will vanish! Allâhu ta’âlâ

fills with taqwâ the hearts of those who lower their voices

in the presence of Allâhu ta’âlâ’s Prophet; He forgives their

sins and gives many rewards. Those who shout at him

from the outside are thoughtless; it is better for them to

wait till he comes out.’ It is apparent to a person who reads

and thinks over these five âyats impartially how much Allâhu

ta’âlâ praises the ta’zîm that will be shown to His beloved

Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and how seriously He commands the

Umma to be respectful and modest towards him. The degree of

its importance can be judged by the fact that all the deeds of

those who speak louder than him will come to naught. These

âyats came as a penalty for the seventy people of the Banî

Tamîm tribe who had called the Prophet by shouting

disrespectfully in Medina. Today some people say that they are

the descendants of the Banî Tamîm tribe. It must have been for

them that Rasûlullah said, ‘A violent and torturous people are

in the East,’ and ‘Satan will arouse disunion from there,’

pointing to a direction towards the Najd territory [on the Arabian

Peninsula] with his blessed hand. Some of the lâ-madhhabî are

‘Najdîs,’ who have spread out from the Najd. The disunion

predicted in the hadîth quoted above appeared twelve hundred

years later: they came from the Najd to the Hijâz, plundering

Muslims’ possessions, killing the men and enslaving the women

and children. They committed baser evils than disbelievers.

“WHAT IS MORE: In the above âyats, the repetitive phrase

‘O those who believe,’ shows that all Muslims of all centuries

till the Last Day are commanded to be respectful towards

Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). If the command had

been only for the as-Sahâbat al-kirâm, ‘radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ

anhum ajma’în’, ‘O as-Sahâba,’ would have been said. As a

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matter of fact, the phrases, ‘O wives of the Prophet!’ and ‘O

people of Medina!’ are Qur’ânic. The same phrase, ‘O those

who believe!’ is used in the âyats stating that salât, fast,

pilgrimage, zakât and other ’ibâdas are fard for all Muslims of all

times till the Last Day. So the Wahhâbîs’ idea that ‘the Prophet

(sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) was to be respected when he was

alive; he must not be respected or asked for help after his

death,’ is groundless in view of these âyats.

“The above âyats indicate that ta’zîm towards others besides

Allâhu ta’âlâ is also necessary. The 104th âyat of Sûrat al-

Baqara states: ‘O those who believe! Do not say “Râ’inâ” [to

the Prophet], but say, “Look upon us.” You, be listeners to

Allâhu ta’âlâ’s commands.’ Believers used to say ‘Râ’inâ’

(watch over, protect us) to the Prophet (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa

sallam). ’Râ’inâ’ also meant ‘to swear, to blemish’ in the Jewish

language, and the Jews used this word for the Prophet (sall-

Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) in this sense. Because it also had this

bad meaning, Allâhu ta’âlâ forbade the Believers to use this


“The 33rd âyat of Sûrat al-Anfâl purports, ‘Allâhu ta’âlâ will

not punish them while you are with them,’ and promises not

to punish them until the end of the world. This âyat refutes the

Wahhâbîs’ claim that the Prophet went away and became soil.

“The 34th âyat of Sûrat al-Baqara purports: ‘When We said

to the angels, “Prostrate yourselves before Âdam,” they all

fell prostrate, except the Satan (Iblîs).’ This âyat kerîma

commands that Âdam (’alaihi ’s-salâm) should be shown ta’zîm.

Satan refused to respect somebody other than Allâhu ta’âlâ and

slandered prophets, and thus disobeyed this command.

Wahhâbîs are in the footsteps of Satan. Yûsuf’s (’alaihi ’ssalâm)

parents and brothers, too, showed honour to him by

prostrating themselves before him. If it caused polytheism or

disbelief to show honour or respect to somebody other than

Allâhu ta’âlâ, He would not have praised His beloved slaves

with the word ‘sajda’ (prostration) when describing them.

According to the Ahl as-Sunna, prostration before somebody

other than Allâhu ta’âlâ is harâm because it resembles the

prostration in ’ibâda, not because it is a sign of respect!

“Satan always appeared in the figure of an old man of the

Najd to Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam). When the

disbelievers assembled at a place called Dâr an-Nadwa in

- 94 -

Mekka and decided to kill the Prophet, Satan appeared in the

figure of an old man of the Najd and taught them how to carry

out the murder, and they agreed to do as the Najdî old man

said. Since that day, Satan has been called Shaikh an-Najdî.

Hadrat Muhyiddîn Ibn al-’Arabî writes in his work Almusâmarât:

‘When the Qouraish disbelievers were repairing

the Ka’ba, each of the heads of the tribes said that he was

going to replace the valuable stone called al-Hajar al-aswad.

Later they agreed that the person who came [to the Ka’ba] first

the following morning would be the referee to choose one from

among them to place the stone. Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi

wa sallam) was the first who came. He was twenty-five then,

and they said they were going to obey what he would say

because he was trustworthy (amîn). He said, “Bring a carpet

and put the stone on it. You all hold the carpet at its sides and

raise it to the level where the stone will be placed.” After it was

raised, he took the stone from the carpet with his blessed hands

and set it at its place in the wall. At that moment. Satan

appeared in the figure of the Shaikh an-Najdî and, pointing to a

stone, said, “Put this beside it to support it.” His real purpose

was for the foul stone he pointed to to fall in the future, so that

the Hajar al-aswad would lose its steadiness and, consequently,

people would consider Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam)

inauspicious. Seeing this, Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa

sallam) said, “A’ûdhu bi’llâhi min ash-shaitâni ’r-rajîm,” and

Satan immediately ran away, disappeared.’ Because Muhyiddîn

ibn al-’Arabî (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh), with this writing, made

known to the world that the Shaikh an-Najdî was Satan, the lâmadhhabî

hate this great Walî. They even call him a

disbeliever. It is understood also from this passage that their

leader was a satan. For this reason, they destroy the blessed

places inherited from Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam).

They say that these places make people polytheists. If it were

polytheism to pray to Allâhu a’âlâ in sacred places, Allâhu ta’âlâ

would not have ordered us to go for hajj; Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam) would not have kissed the Hajar al-aswad

while he was performing tawâf; nobody would pray at ’Arafât

and Muzdalifa; stones would not be thrown at Minâ, and

Muslims would not walk between as-Safâ and al-Marwa. These

sacred places would not have been respected that much.

“When Sa’d ibn Mu’âdh (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’anh), the head

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of the Ansâr, came to where they assembled, Rasûlullah (sall-

Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) said, ‘Stand up for your leader!’ This

command was intended for all of them to honour Sa’d. It is

wrong to say, ‘Sa’d was ill. It was intended that he should be

helped off his riding-animal,’ because the order was for all of

them. If it were intended for helping him, the order would have

been for one or two persons only, and ‘for Sa’d’ would have

been said, and there would have been no need to say ‘for your


“Every time he went from Medina to Mekka for hajj,

’Abdullah ibn ’Umar (radiy-Allâhu ’anhumâ) stopped and

performed salât and prayed at the sacred places where

Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) had sat. He would

become blessed by these places. He would put his hands on

Rasûlullah’s (sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) minbar (pulpit) and

then rub them on his face. Imâm Ahmad ibn Hanbal

(rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) would kiss the Hujrat as-Sa’âda and

the pulpit to become blessed by them. The lâ-madhhabî, on the

one hand say that they belong to the Hanbalî Madhhab, and, on

the other, regard as ‘polytheism’ what the imâm of this

Madhhab did. Then, it is understood that their claim to be

Hanbalî is false. Imâm Ahmad ibn Hanbal put al-Imâm ash-

Shâfi’î’s (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) shirt into water and drank

the water to get blessings. Khâlid ibn Zaid Abû Ayyûb al-Ansârî

(radiy-Allâhu ’anh) rubbed his face against Rasûlullah’s (sall-

Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam) blessed grave and, when someone

wanted to lift him up, he said: ‘Leave me! I came not for the

stones or soil but for the audience of Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam).’

The as-Sahâbat al-kirâm (’alaihimu ’r-ridwân) used to get

blessed with the things that belonged to Rasûlullah (sall-Allâhu

’alaihi wa sallam). They received blessings from the water he

used in ablution and from his blessed sweat, shirt, sceptre,

sword, shoes, glass, ring, in short, from anything he used.

Umm-i-Salama (radiy-Allâhu ’anhâ) the mother of the Faithful,

kept a hair from his blessed beard. When ill people came, she

would dip the hair into water and have them drink the water.

With his blessed glass, they used to drink the water for health.

Imâm al-Bukhârî’s (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) grave emanated

the smell of musk, and people took soil from the grave to get

blessed with it. No ’âlim or muftî disapproved of it. The ’ulamâ’

- 96 -

of hadîth and fiqh permitted such actions.”[1] Translation from

the book Usûl-ul-arba’a ends here.

[During the times of the Sahâbat al-kirâm and the Tâbi’ûn,

and even until the end of the first millenium, there were many

Awliyâ’ and sulahâ’. People used to visit and receive blessings

from them as well as obtain their prayers. There was no need to

make the dead intermediaries (tawassul) or to get blessed

(tabarruk) with lifeless things. The fact that these events were

rare in those days does not mean that they were forbidden. If

they had been forbidden, there would have been those who

would prevent them. No ’âlim prevented them.

As the Last Age has set in, however, bid’as and symptoms

of disbelief have increased. The youth have been deceived by

the enemies of Islam in the disguise of religious authorities and

scientists,[2] and, because irreligiousness or apostasy has

suited their purposes, dictators and the cruel, the slaves of their

nafses, have given great support to this movement. The number

of’âlims and Walîs has decreased, there even has not appeared

any in the last decades, and, therefore, it has become a must to

be blessed by the graves of and the things inherited from the

Awliyâ’. But, some things, which are harâm to do, have been

inserted into these too, as if it was done in every affair and


With unanimity of the ’ulamâ’[3] of Islam, not this lawful

practice itself should be prevented, even though prohibited

behaviours (harâms) have been introduced into it, but instead

the bid’as introduced into it should be removed].


All the attributes of Allâhu ta’âlâ manifest themselves in

every creature, in the tiniest vestiges. For instance, as His

attributes of mercy and kindness manifest themselves, so do

His attributes of wrath, dudgeon and tormenting appear. He

[1] Al-usûl al-arba’a, part one.

[2] Those who are in the disguise of scientists are called ‘sham scientists’,

while those in the disguise of religious men are called ‘zindîqs’.

[3] The writings of the ’ulamâ’ on this subject are quoted in Ahmad bin Zainî

Dahlân’s Ad-durar as-saniyya fi ’r-raddi ’alâ ’l-Wahhâbiyya, Egypt,

1319 and 1347; photographic reproduction, Istanbul, 1395 (1975 A.D.).

Those who read them will have no doubts left.

- 97 -

creates uses and harms in every substance, in everything. Man

presumes luscious, pleasurable things to be useful at the same

time, and this presumtion misleads him. Allâhu ta’âlâ, who is

very compassionate, has sent Prophets, announced the uses

and the harms in everything, commanded doing what is useful

and prohibited doing what is harmful. He has termed these

commandments Fard (Farz) and the prohibitions Harâm or

Dunyâ (World). These commandments and prohibitions as a

whole are expressed with the term Sharî’at. The meaning of the

interdiction, “Avoid the world!” is, “Avoid (committing) harâms!”

Another meaning of the word “Dunyâ” is “Life before death”.

None of the worldly pleasures and flavours is harâm

(forbidden). What is prohibited is using them in a harmful way. It

is either farz or sunnat to use them in a useful way. Different

organs of the body enjoy and take pleasure from different

things, and so is the case with the heart and the nafs.

All man’s limbs are under the heart’s command. This heart,

which we term ‘qalb’, is not something visible. It is a sort of

power embodied in the piece of flesh that we (also) call ‘heart’.

The nafs enjoys committing harâms. The devil and the nasf

on the one hand and the evil company on the other, which

subsumes not only misleading words and writings by harmful

friends but also deluding radio and television broadcast, are

prone to beguile man and tempt the heart to committing


A person who has Îmân in his heart, i.e. who believes in the

fact that Muhammed ‘alaihis-salâm’ is the Prophet, is called a

Muslim. A Muslim has to adapt all his actions to the Sharî’at of

Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ and learn this Sharî’at from books

written by those true scholars whom we call Ahl as-sunna. He

should not read religious books written by people without a

Madh-hab. As he adapts himself to the Sharî’at, he will

gradually take a dislike to the world , that is, to harâms. Once

the heart is emptied of the desire to commit harâms, love of

Allah will pour into it. It is like that when a bottle is emptied of

the water it has been containing air will immediately take the

water’s place. Senses unknown to us will develop in such a

heart. It will begin to perceive the entire world, even life in the

grave. It will hear a sound wherever it is. Wherever there is a

sound it will hear it. All his worships and prayers will be

accepted. He will lead a peaceful and happy life.

- 98 -


The four different stages

of enlarging Masjid an-Nabî:

1. Bâb as-salâm

2. Bâb al-Jibrîl

3. Bâb an-Nisâ

4. Bâb ar-rahma

5. Bâb at-tawassul

6. Shabakat as-Sa’âda

7. Hujrat as-Sa’âda

8. Muwâjahat ash-Sherîfa

9. Mihrâb an-Nabî

10. Mihrâb al-’Uthmânî

11. Part covered with sand


The first advice is to correct the belief in accordance with

those which the Ahl-i sunnat savants communicate in their

books. For, it is this madhhab only that will be saved from Hell.

May Allâhu ta’âlâ give plenty of rewards for the work of those

great people! Those scholars of the four madhhabs, who

reached up the grade of ijtihâd, and the great scholars

educated by them are called Ahl as-sunna scholars. After

correcting the belief (îmân), it is necessary to perform the

worship informed in the knowledge of fiqh, i.e. to do the

commands of the Sharî’at and to abstain from what it prohibits.

One should perform the namâz five times each day without

reluctance and slackness, and being careful about its conditions

and ta’dîl-i arkân. He who has as much money as nisâb should

give zakât. Imâm-i a’zâm Abû Hanîfa says, “Also, it is

necessary to give the zakât of gold and silver which women use

as ornaments.”

One should not waste one’s precious life even on

unnecessary mubâhs. It is certainly necessary not to waste it on

harâm. We should not busy ourselves with taghannî, singing,

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musical instruments, or songs. We should not be deceived by

the pleasure they give our nafses. These are poisons mixed

with honey and covered with sugar.

One should not commit giybat. Giybat is harâm. [Giybat

means to talk about a Muslim’s or a Zimmî’s secret fault behind

his back. It is necessary to tell Muslims about the faults of the

Harbîs, about the sins of those who commit these sins in public,

about the evils of those who torment Muslims and who deceive

Muslims in buying and selling, thus causing Muslims to beware

their harms, and to tell about the slanders of those who talk and

write about Islam wrongfully; these are not giybat. [Radd-ul-

Muhtâr: 5-263)].

One should not spread gossip (carry words) among

Muslims. It has been declared that various kinds of torments

would be done to those who commit these two kinds of sins.

Also, it is harâm to lie and slander, and must be abstained from.

These two evils were harâm in every religion. Their

punishments are very heavy. It brings plenty of thawâb to

conceal Muslims’ defects, not to spread their secret sins and to

forgive them their faults. One should pity one’s inferiors, those

under one’s command [such as wives, children, students,

soldiers] and the poor. One should not reproach them for their

faults. One should not hurt or heat or swear at those poor

persons for trivial reasons. One should attack nobody’s

property, life, honour, or chastity. Debts to others and to the

government must be paid. Bribery, accepting or giving, is

harâm. However, it would not be bribery to give it in order to get

rid of the oppressions of a cruel person, or to get rid of some

other disgusting situation. However, even in such cases, it is

harâm to accept the bribe offered. Everybody should see his

own defects, and should every hour think of the faults which he

has committed towards Allâhu ta’âlâ. He should always bear in

mind that Allâhu ta’âlâ does not hurry in punishing him, nor

does He cut off his sustenance. The words of command from

one’s parents, or from the government, compatible with the

Sharî’a, must be obeyed, but the ones, incompatible with the

Sharî’a, should not be resisted against so that we should not

cause fitna. [See the 123rd letter in the second volume of the

book Maktûbât-i Ma’thûmiyya.]

After correcting the belief and doing the commands of fiqh,

one should spend all one’s time remembering Allâhu ta’âlâ.

- 100 -

One should continue remembering, mentioning Allâhu ta’âlâ as

the great men of religion have communicated. One should feel

hostility towards all the things that will prevent the heart from

remembering Allâhu ta’âlâ. The more you adhere to the

Sharî’at, the more delicious it will be to remember Him. As

indolence, laziness increase in obeying the Sharî’at, that flavour

will gradually decrase, being thoroughly gone at last.

It is harâm for Muslims, women and men alike, to go out or

to engage in outdoor activities such as ball games and

swimming without properly covering (those parts of their body

which Islam prohibits one to expose to others and which it terms

as) their awrat parts. As well, it is harâm to attend places

occupied by people with awrat parts exposed. [İslâm Ahlâkı

(Islamic Moral Values), p. 331.] If, while committing something

harâm, one also dawdles away the time allotted for one of the

five daily prayers of namâz (without having performed it within

its prescribed period of time), this not only will add to the sin,

but also may induce one to a state of disbelief. It is harâm to

play any sort of musical instrument, as well as to perform any

religious recital, e.g. reading or reciting (passages from the)

Qur’ân al-kerîm, reciting (an eulogy to the Messenger of Allah,

Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’, termed the) mawlid, or reciting (the

prescribed invitation to prayer of namâz, termed the) azân (or

adhân), melodiously. Also, it is harâm to use musical

instruments such as flutes, or loudspeakers in the performance

of such religious performances. Saying something melodiously

means elongation of some vowels, which may spoil the

wording. Wahhâbîs are trying to prohibit the performance of

mawlid with casuistries such as, “The Prophet is dead; he will

not hear you. Besides, it is polytheism to eulogize anyone other

than Allah.” It is this belief of theirs which is disbelief. Using a

loudspeaker is like using the telephone. If something is harâm

to say, it is not permissible to listen to it through a loudspeaker.

It is permissible to use loudspeakers for educational purposes,

e.g. in teaching science, arts, economics, religious knowledge,

ethics and martial lessons. It is not permissible to use

loudspeakers to announce corrupt publications fabricated so as

to impair moral and religious comportments or to amplify the

sound during the performance of adhân or public prayer of

namâz, or to listen to such performances. The voice heard from

a loudspeaker installed on a minaret is not the voice of the

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muadh-dhin (person calling the adhân). It is the voice produced

by the instrument, despite its close similarity to the human

voice. When we hear this voice, we should say, “It’s prayer time

(time for namâz),” instead of saying, “The adhân is being

called.” For, the sound produced by the loudspeaker is not

originally the voice of (the person saying the) adhân. It is a

reproduced copy of adhân.

It is stated as follows in some hadîth-i-sherîfs: “Towards the

end of the world, the Qur’ân al-kerîm will be being read

through (instruments called) mizmârs.” “There is such a time

to come that the Qur’ân al-kerîm will be read through

mizmârs. It will be read not to please Allâhu ta’âlâ, but only

for pleasure.” “There are many people who read (or recite)

the Qur’ân al-kerîm and the Qur’ân al-kerîm utters a curse

against them.” “There will come such a time when the most

dissolute people will be (among) muadh-dhins.” “There will

be a time when the Qur’ân al-kerîm will be read through

mizmârs.” “Allâhu ta’âlâ will pronounce a curse on them.”

Mizmâr means a musical instrument of any sort, such as a

whistle. A loudspeaker also is a mizmâr. Muadh-dhins should

dread these hadîth-i-sherîfs and avoid calling the adhân calling

through loudspeakers. Some people who are ignorant in

religious matters assert that loudspeakers are useful appliances

because they convey sound to long distances. Our Prophet

admonished, “Perform the acts of worship as you saw me

and my As-hâb (companions) do them! Those who make

changes in the acts of worship are called “ahl-i-bid’at”

(people of bid’at, heretics). People of bid’at will certainly go

to Hell. None of their acts of worship shall be accepted.” It

is not something right to claim to make useful amendments to

religious practices. Claims of this sort are lies fibbed by

enemies of religion. It is the Islamic scholars’ business to judge

whether a certain change is useful. These profound scholars

are called mujtahids. Mujtahids do not make changes at will.

They know whether an amendment or a change will be (an act

of) bid’at. They were unanimous in the fact that calling the

adhân through a loudspeaker (mizmâr) is an act of bid’at. The

path that will lead to the love of Allâhu ta’âlâ is through the

human heart. By creation, the heart is pure like a mirror. Acts of

worship will add to the heart’s purity and lustre. Sins will darken

the heart, so that it will no longer receive the fayds (subtle

- 102 -

pieces of spiritual information) and nûrs (lights, haloes)

conveyed by (invisible rays of) love. Sâlih (pious) Muslims will

sense this absence and will feel sad about it. They are

disinclined to commit sins, but eager to perform more and more

acts of worship. Instead of performing only the five daily prayers

of namâz, for instance, they wish to perform other prayers of

namâz as well. Committing sins feels sweet and sounds useful

to the human nafs. All sorts of bid’at and sins are nutritive to the

nafs, which is an enemy of Allâhu ta’âlâ, and they will fortify its

strongholds. An example of them is to call the adhân through a


Childhood is the age to acquire knowledge, and if this

flowering period of time is frittered away, Muslims’ children will

be left ignorant, which in turn means an irreligious generation

ahead. Having watched this catastrophic process in heedless

silence, religious authorities will be the biggest shareholders in

the grave sin. If a person does not learn the halâl and the

harâm, or if he flouts them though he may have learned them,

he will become a disbeliever. He is no different from churchgoers

or from those disbelievers who worship idols or icons.

Man’s arch enemy is his own nafs. It always wishes to do what

is harmful to him. Desires of the nafs are called shahwa (lust).

Doing these carnal desires of the nafs gives it great pleasure. It

is not sinful to do them as much as necessary. Yet it will be

harmful and sinful to do them to excess. In order to distract

Muslim children from acquiring religious knowledge, enemies of

Islam have enticed them into ball games in the name of sports

activities and physical training. Since exposing the parts of (the

body called) awrat and looking at others’ awrat parts are the

nafs’s favourite enjoyments, craze for ball games has spread

rapidly among the children. Muslim parents should see to that

their young sons and daughters enter into a (suitable) marriage

as early as possible, they should prevent them from going out in

groups of mixed sexes and from joining ball games where they

would inevitably expose their awrat parts, and they should send

them to a sâlih (true) Muslim teacher so that they will learn their

religion and faith.

- 103 -

To: Hakîkat Bookstore

Dear Brothers in Islam.

Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.

All praise to Allahu ta’âlâ. Peace be upon the holy Prophet of Islam

(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam). May Allah be well pleased with you!

I have written this letter to thank you and praise your good deeds in

the straight path you have taken to redeem Islam and Muslims in this

modern, blind world.

I have received your worthy and valuable books - ENDLESS BLISS

IV, BELIEF AND ISLAM, and THE SUNNI PATH. The books arrived

just six days after I wrote a letter asking questions on Qada and Qadar

with music. However, I do not know how to thank you as no word,

phrase nor letter could convey my feeling to you. In fact, I will never

deem of limiting my thanksgiving through words and letters and I hope

you will bear with the poor and weak mind of mine.

In the first instande, I had written to express my thanks on Edless

Bliss III and also requested for its price and those of other books

published by Hakikat Kitâbevi. What a great person you are! You did

not ask me to pay for the book. Yet, you sent another without

demanding anything. I don’t just know what to say as you are pleasing

my heart, making me to realise myself as a Muslim and protecting me

against the enemies of Islam. There is not much to say than may Allah

be pleased with you, favour you, provide for you in aboundance and

rewards you with everlasting bliss.

As I am focusing my attention on the just received Endless Bliss IV

with others, I could deduce that you are presenting Islam in its absolute

purity and I am very happy to say in good authority that it has provided

answers to most of my questions. This book is a unique book teaching

the practical faith and duty of Muslims. It has become my friend when

going out, my companion when alone, my teacher when learning and

my quidance when praying. All the books are simply too great. With

them, I have come to realise that one must not resign himself to luxury,

prosperity and the good life but should strive hard and be profoundly

learned in Islamic knowledge and to communicate the message of true

religion to the people of all ages.

However, I am very sorry and bitterly touched to inform you that my

father is not a practising Muslim. This has served as hindrance towards

my learning the religion of Islam many years ago. I have remain the

victim of the oppressed for years and there is no peace everywhere in

the house. All the times, days and years, I have been full of thinking

and supplication sorting things with my best ability and planning a way

out of this situation. It was during this time that a young man of my age

came to my life. We are so intimate that we usually discuss our private

affairs with each other. After discussing about my problem, he advised

me to write to your publication. For many years, I have sat desperately

- 104 -

to contemplate what makes me a Muslim. I scrutinised to discover how

to be a Muslim to truly and unambiguously accept the Holy Quran and

its injunctions and to put them into practice; sincerely, in its entirety.

Here in this part of the world, people are very corrupt, there are

many heretical groups who make game of religion, trade in religion and

converts religion into business in order to fulfil their sensudus desires.

Some of those who claim to be Muslim leaders have strayed away and

defected from Islam. Many have turned religion into a lucrative

business from which they realize millions of Naira (Nigerian currency

note). In fact one cannot be too careful. Religion leaders have reduced

faith to mere words of mouth which can be decorated with beautiful

rhetorics just to attract applause.

After attaching myself to your publication, I have now realised that I

need nobody else and I need nothing else in this world except Hadrat

HILMI IŞIK. I have come to understand that I have much to regret in

the hereafter if I failed to search for true and correct knowledge. And

what do I have to tell my Allah to justify my case if I do not learn,

practise and serve Islam.

Dear brothers in Islam, I have made up my mind and ready to learn

the only religion. I don’t want to sit down arms folded watching

helplessly as they lead people to ruination. I would therefore will be

very pleased if you favourably consider my request of coming to

Turkey.I would like to be with you in all spheres of your activities and

struggles for Islam since it is my activities and struggles as well. I want

to learn the correct dîn and adapt myself to the Hanafî Madhhab under

your guidance and by your courtesy.

If my request is accepted, I would like you to give me detail

information on how I will make my transport arrangements.

Meanwhile, as I have no provision yet, I will want to work for few

years in order to earn my transportation fare.

I would like to say again that I had enclosed a copy of my

photograph and asked few questions on Qada and Qadar in my last

letter. Happily, Endless Bliss IV has provided an answer to my puzzles

on Music.

I will want you to continue sending me more of your valuable

books. I seek your support in combating and safeguiding myself

against the corrupt actions and books of the enemies of Islam.

May Allah provide good for you wherever you may be! Âmin.


Your brother in Islam,


c/o Muhammad Shaikh,

P. O. Box 1071

Ogbomoso, Oyo State


- 105 -


Entries related to tasawwuf can be learned best from Ahmad

al-Farûqî as-Sirhindî’s (rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh) Maktûbât.

’âbid: one who performs much ’ibâda.

Ahl al-Bait: immediate relatives of the Prophet (’alaihi ’ssalâm):

(according to most ’ulamâ’) ’Ali, first cousin and son-inlaw;

Fâtima, daughter; Hasan and Husain, grandsons (radiy-

Allâhu ta’’âlâ ’anhum).

a’immat al-madhâhib: pl. of imâm al-madhhab.

’âlim: (pl. ’ulamâ)’) a Muslim scholar of Islam.

Allâhu ta’âlâ: Allah to Whom all kinds of superiority belong.

-Ansâr: Those Medinans who embraced Islam before the

conquest of Mekka.

aqcha: a coin, unit of money.

’Arafât: open space located 24 kilometers north of Mekka.

-’Arsh: end of matter bordering the seven skies and the

Kursî, which is outside the seventh sky and inside the ’Arsh.

-’Asr as-Sa’âda: the ‘Era of prosperity’, time of the Prophet

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) and the Four Khalîfas (radiy-Allâhu ta’âlâ


Awliyâ: pl. of Walî.

awqâf: (pl. of waqf) pious foundations.

âyat (kerîma): a verse of al-Qur’an al-kerîm.

’azîma: difficult way of doing a religious act or affair.

-Basmala: the Arabic phrase “Bismillâhi ’r-rahmâni ’r-rahîm”

(in the Name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful.)

bid’a(t): An act, a belief, an utterance which does not

originally exist in Islam and which was invented later.

bâtil: invalid, wrong, vain.

dhikr: (phrase of) remembering, keeping in mind, Allâhu

ta’âlâ every moment.

dirham: weight unit of three grams.

Efendi: title given by the Ottoman State to statesmen and

especially to religious scholars; a form of address, meaning

“Your Great Personage”.

faqîh: (pl. fuqahâ’).

Fard: (an act or thing) that is commanded by Allâhu ta’âla in

Qur’ân al-kerîm.

Fard ’ain: fard for every Muslim. fard kifâya: fard that must

be done at least by one Muslim.

-Fâtiha: First of the 114 sûras of Qur’an al-kerîm, containing

- 106 -

seven âyats.

fatwâ: i) ijtihâd (of a mujtahid); ii) conclusion (of a muftî)

from books of fiqh whether something not shown in them is

permitted or not; answer given to religious questions by Islamic

scholars; iii) rukhsa.

fiqh: knowledge dealing with what Muslims should do and

should not do; actions, ’ibâdât.

fitna, fasâd: widespreading of statements and actions that

harm Muslims and Islam.

fuqahâ: (pl. of faqîh).

ghaban fâhish: (being cheated much by buying at a) price

higher than the current prices; an exorbitant price.

ghazâ: battle against non-Muslims, to convert them to Islam;


ghâzî: Muslim engaged in ghazâ.

hadîth (sherif): i) a saying of the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm);

al-Hadîth ash-sherîf: all the hadîths as a whole; ii) ’ilm alhadîth;

iii) Books of the hadîth ash-sherîf. iv) Al-hadîth alqudsî,

as-sahîh, al-hasan: kinds of hadîths (for which, see

Endlees Bliss, II).

Hadrat: title of respect used before the names of Islamic


hajj: fard pilgrimage to Mekka.

halâl: (act, thing) permitted in Islam.

Hanafî: (a member) of Hanafî Madhhab.

Hanbalî: (a member) of Hanbalî Madhhab.

harâm: (act, thing) forbidden in Islam.

hasan: (see hadîth).

Hegira: emigration of the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) from

Mekka to Medina; al-Hijra.

-Hijâz: the region on the Arabian Peninsula on the Red Sea

coast where Mekka and Medina are situated.

hijrî: of the Hegira.

-Hujrat at-Sa’âda (al-Mu’attara): the room where the

graves of the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and of his two

immediate Khalîfas are.

’ibâda: (pl. -ât) worship, rite; act for which thawâb (rewards)

will be given in the Hereafter.

’îd: one of the two Islamic festivals.

ijtihâd: (meaning or conclusion drawn by a mujtahid

through) endeavouring to understand the hidden meaning in an

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âyat or a hadîth.

’ilm: knowledge, science; ’ilm al-hâl: (books of) Islamic

teachings (of one Madhhab) ordered to be learned by every

Muslim; ’ilm al-usûl: methodologic sciences, esp. those of fiqh

and kalâm.

imâm: i) profound ’âlim; ii) leader in jamâ’a; iii) the Caliph


îmân: faith, beliefs of Islam; kalâm, i’tiqâd.

i’tiqâd: îmân.

Jâhiliyya: era of nescience, that is, pre-Islamic Arabia.

jamâ’a: community; body of Muslims (except the imâm) in a

mosque; companions; union.

jâriya: non-Muslim female slave captivated in war and

treated like a sister.

jihâd: war against non-Muslims (or the nafs) to convert them

(it) to Islam.

Jum’a: (salât of) Friday

-Ka’ba(t al-mu’azzama): the big room in the great mosque

in Mekka.

kalâm: knowledge of îmân; ’ilm al-kalâm.

kalimat ash-shahâda: the phrase beginning with

“Ashhadu...” The first of the five fundamentals of Islam;

declaring one’s belief in Islam.

karâma: (pl. -ât).

khalîfa: (pl. khulafâ’) the Caliph.

Khârijî: (of) those heretical Muslims hostile to Ahl al-Bait

and to their posterity.

Khutba: the homily delivered at the pulpit by the imâm at

Jum’a and ’îd prayers, which must be read in Arabic all over the

world (sinful if made in another language).

madhhab: (pl. madhhâhib) all of what an imâm of

(especially) fiqh or i’tiqâd communicated.

-Madînat al-munawwara: the illuminated city of Medina.

-Mahshar: the Last Judgement.

-Makkat al-mukarrama: the honoured city of Mekka.

makrûh: (act, thing) improper, disliked and abstained by the

Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm); makrûh tahrîma: prohibited with much


Mâlikî: (a member) of the Mâlikî Madhhab.

Ma’rifa: knowledge about Allâhu ta’âlâ’s Dhât (Essence,

Person) and Sifât (Attributes), inspired to the hearts of Awliyâ’.

- 108 -

-Marva (Marwa): one of the two hills near the Masjid al-


masjid: mosque; al-Masjid al-Harâm: the great mosque in

Mekka; al-Masjid ash-sherîf (as-Sa’âda, an-Nabî): the mosque

in Medina, built in the time of the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) and

later enlarged several times, in which his grave is.

mawdû’: (kind of hadîth) lacking one of the conditions (for a

hadîth to be sahîh) laid down by an ’alim of hadîth.

Mîlâdî: of the Christian era; of the Gregorian calendar.

Minâ: a village six kilometers north of Mekka.

mubâh: (act, thing) neither ordered nor prohibited;


mufsid: act, thing that nullifies (especially, salât).

muftî: great ’âlim authorized to issue fatwâ.

-Muhâjirûn: Those Mekkan people who embraced Islam

before the conquest of Mekka.

mujaddid: strengthener, renewer, of Islam.

mu’jiza: miracle peculiar to prophets, alone, and worked by

Allâhu ta’âlâ.

muqallid: Muslim who practices taqlîd; a follower of an

imâm al-madhhab.

mustahab: (act, thing) deserving thawâb if done but no sin if

omitted, nor disbelief if disliked.

-Mu’tazila: one of the 72 heretical groups in Islam.

-Muwâjahat as-Sa’âda: the space in front of the qibla wall

[to which the Prophet’s (’alaihi ’s-salâm) blessed head

corresponds] of his shrine, where the visitor stands facing the


Muzdalifa: the area between the city of Mekka and ’Arafât.

nafs: a force in man which wants him to harm himself


najâsa: religiously impure thing.

nâ-mahram: (a relative of the opposite sex) not within

forbidden (harâm) degrees of relationship for marriage.

nikâh: (act of engagement for) marriage in Islam.

Pâsha: title given by the Ottoman State to statesmen,

governors and especially officers of high rank (now general or


qâdî: Muslim judge; qadi.

qibla: the direction turned towards during worshipping (in

Islam, toward the Ka’bat al-mu’azzama).

- 109 -

Qouraish: Arab community of Qouraish, an ancestor of the

Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm).

-Qur’an al-kerîm: the Holy Koran.

rak’a: the series of reciting and the acts of standing, bowing

and prostration (and sitting) in salât, which consists of at least

two and at most (for fard salâts) four rak’as.

Ramadân: the Sacred Month in Muslim Calendar.

Rasûlullah (Rasûl-Allah): Muhammad (’alaihi ’s-salâm), the

‘Prophet of Allâhu ta’âlâ’; the Messenger of Allah.

-Rawdat al-Mutahhara: the space between the Prophet’s

(’alaihi ’s-salâm) shrine and the pulpit of the Masjid ash-Sherîf.

rukhsa: to permit; easy way of doing a religious act or affair.

-Safâ: one of the two hills near the Masjid al-Harâm.

Sahâbî: (pl. as-Sahâbat al-kirâm) Muslim who saw the

Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) at least once; the Companion(s).

sahîh: i) religiously lawful, valid; congruous to Islam; ii) (of a

hadîth) soundly transmitted, authentic according to the

conditions laid by the scholars of hadîth.

salât: i) prayer; (with salâm)= salawât; ii) ritual prayer of at

least two rak’as; namâz, in Persian; salât janâza: funeral prayer.

salawât: (pl. of salât) special prayers in which blessings and

high ranks are asked on the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm).

sâlih: (pl. sulahâ’) one who is pious and abstains from sins,

(opposite: fâsiq); see Walî.

Shafi’î: (a member) of Shâfi’î Madhhab.

Shaikh al-Islam: Head of the Religious Affairs Office in an

Islamic State.

Shî’ites: one of the 72 non-Sunnî groups in Islam.

shirk: (statement, action, causing) polytheism; ascribing a

partner to Allâhu ta’âlâ.

sulahâ: pl. of sâlih.

sunna: (act, thing) that was, though not commanded by

Allâhu ta’âlâ, done and liked by the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) as

an ’ibâda (there is thawâb if done, but no sin if omitted, yet it

causes sin if continually omitted and disbelief if disliked; the

Sunna; i) (with fard) all the sunnas as a whole; ii) (with the Book

or Qur’an al-kerîm) the Hadîth ash-sherîf; iii) (alone) fiqh, Islam.

sûra: a chapter of Qur’ân al-kerîm.

Taba’ at-Tâbi’în: those ’âlims who had seen neither the

Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) nor a Sahâbî but saw (one of) the

Tâbi’ûn; so their successors.

- 110 -

tâ’a: those acts that are liked by Allâhu ta’âlâ but might be

done without the need of knowing that they are liked by Him.

-Tâbi’ûn (al-i’zâm): most of those Muslims who had not

seen the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) but saw (one of) as-Sahabat

al-kirâm; so their successors.

ta’dîl al-arkân: keeping the body motionless for a while after

becoming calm during and between the various acts in salât

(see Endless Bliss, III, Chapters 14-16).

tafsîr: i) book of, ii) science of (’ilm at-tafsîr), iii)

interpretation of Qur’ân al-kerîm.

taqlîd: living up to, following, being a member of one of the

four Madhhabs.

taqwâ: fearing Allâhu ta’âlâ; abstention from harâms;

practising ’azimas (See wara’ and zuhd).

tasawwuf: (Islamic mysticism of sufism as defined by Islam)

knowledge and (after adapting oneself to fiqh) practice of the

manners of the Prophet (’alaihi ’s-salâm) which strengthens

îmân, makes the practice of fiqh easy and provides one to attain

ma’rifa; ’ilm at-tasawwuf.

tawâf: the ’ibâda of going round the Ka’bat al-mu’azzama

during hajj.

tawakkul: trusting in, expecting everything from Allâhu ta’âlâ

exclusively; expecting from Allâhu ta’âlâ the effectiveness of the

cause after working or holding on to the cause – before which

tawakkul is unadvised.

tawhîd: (belief in) the Oneness, Unity of Allâhu ta’âlâ.

ta’zîr: a kind of penalty as described in Islam; chastisement.

thawâb: (unit of) reward promised and will be given in the

Hereafter by Allâhu ta’âlâ as a recompence for doing and

saying what He likes.

’ulamâ: pl. of ’âlim.

Umma: the community, body of Believers, of a prophet; the

Umma(t al-Muhammadiyya): the Muslim Umma.

usûl: i) methodology or fundamentals of an Islamic science;

ii) methodologies of basic Islamic sciences, ’ilm al-usûl; iii)

îmân, kalâm.

wâjib: (act or thing) never omitted by the Prophet (’alaihi ’ssalâm),

so almost as compulsory as fard and not to be omitted.

Walî: (pl. Awliyâ’) one who is loved and protected by Allâhu

ta’âlâ; a sâlih who has also corrected his nafs.

wara’: (after avoiding harâms) abstention from doubtful

- 111 -

things (mushtabihât).

zâhid: a man of zuhd; ascetic.

zakât: (fard duty of giving annually) certain amount of

certain kinds of property to certain kinds of people, by which the

remaining property becomes purified and blessed and the

Muslim who gives it protects himself against being (called) a


zuhd: not setting one’s heart on worldly things; abstention

(even) from mubâhs.

- 112 -

A’ûdhu billah-imin-esh-shaytân-ir-rajîm


Resûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’

stated: “When fasâd (mischief, instigation,

disunion, tumult) runs rife among my Ummat

(Muslims), a person who abides by my

Sunnat will acquire blessings equal to the

amount deserved by a hundred martyrs.”

Scholars affiliated with any one of the four

Madhhabs, (which are, namely, Hanafî, Mâlikî,

Shâfi’î and Hanbalî,) are called Scholars of

Ahl as-Sunna. The leader of the scholars of

Ahl as-Sunna is al-Imâm al-a’zam Abû Hanîfa.

These scholars recorded what they had heard

from the Sahâba-i-kirâm, who, in their turn,

had told them what they had heard from the

Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa


The earth is populated by three groups of

people today:

1– Disbelievers. These people say that

they are not Muslims. Jews and Christians are

in this group.

2– The Sunnî Muslims. These people exist

with an ever-increasing population in every


3– (Hypocrites called) Munâfiqs. They say

that they are Muslims. With respect to îmân

and some acts of worship, they are not

comparable to the Ahl as-Sunnat. They are

not true Muslims.

- 113 -

Our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa

sallam’ stated, “A person whom

Allâhu ta’âlâ loves very much is one

who learns his religion and teaches

it to others. Learn your religion from

the mouths of Islamic scholars!”

A person who cannot find a true scholar must

learn by reading books written by the scholars of

Ahl as-sunna, and try hard to spread these books.

A Muslim who has ’ilm (knowledge), ’amal

(practising what one knows; obeying Islam’s

commandments and prohibitions), and ikhlâs

(doing everything only to please Allâhu ta’âlâ) is

called an Islamic scholar. A person who

represents himself as an Islamic scholar though he

lacks any one of these qualifications is called an

‘evil religious scholar’, or an ‘impostor’. An Islamic

scholar is a guard who protects Islam. An impostor

is Satan’s accomplice.[1]


[1] Knowledge that is acquired not for the purpose

of practising it with ikhlâs, will not be beneficial.

Please see the 366 th and 367 th pages of the

first volume of Hadîqa, and also the 36th and

the 40 th and the 59 th letters in the first volume

of Maktûbât. (The English versions of these

letters exist in the 16th and the 25 th and the 28 th

chapters, respectively, of the second fascicle of

Endless Bliss).

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